TUDSANATON C, PATTAMAPITOON T, PHEWNIL O, SEMVIMOL N, WARARAM W, CHANTHASOON C, THAIPAKDEE S
001272 TUDSANATON C, PATTAMAPITOON T, PHEWNIL O, SEMVIMOL N, WARARAM W, CHANTHASOON C, THAIPAKDEE S (Environmental Science Dep, Kasetsart Univ, Bangkok, Thailand) : Limiting factors of durian rind composting by natural technology during the wet period. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27(2), 590-8.
This study aims to examine the composting of durian rinds by using natural technology through the aerobic degradation of normal flora bacteria from the rinds by the utilization of paddy soil containing iron (Fe) compound used as an energy source during Thailand’s wet period. The sample collection process was obtained once a week for 12 weeks as this is to analyze the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the rinds. The results showed that within the first 4 weeks, the temperature of the compost has decreased while the moisture content has increased. More so at 5 weeks it was shown that the nitrogen content decreases significantly as there was no degradation activity although there is still a large amount of Iron (Fe) compound left enough to be used as an energy source in the aerobic degradation process. Where this can be explained by the process of cell multiplication and bacterial decomposition that requires nitrogen, therefor the result in the decreased temperature caused by the high levels of moisture as well as the total nitrogen and C: N ratio does not meet the standard of organic fertilizer as this can be concluded that nitrogen is a limiting factor in the process of decomposing oxygenated durian rinds of bacteria during the rainy season.
5 illus, 2 tables, 40 ref
YULIANI, YUDONO B, IBRAHIM E, WIDJAJANTI H
001271 YULIANI, YUDONO B, IBRAHIM E, WIDJAJANTI H (Sriwijaya Univ, South Sumatera, Indonesia) : Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) using ultra sonic wave. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27(2), 585-9.
Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery is a technology to increase petroleum recovery using biosurfactants as a result of bacterial metabolites. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ultrasonic waves, NaCl concentration, and pH on recovered oil yield. Ultrasonic waves were emitted for 1-5 minutes (SKU 929154620, 20 kHz) with 1-5% NaCl concentrations at pH 5.5, 6, 6.5, and 7. The highest recovered oil yield reached 80.37% using Pseudomonas peli with NaCl 6% without pH variation for 3 minutes of ultrasonic transmission. These findings reveal that ultrasonic waves and NaCl concentrations have a major effect in increasing the recovery of petroleum using bacteria.
3 illus, 26 ref
BOUAZZA N, CHERIFI K, BABALI B
001270 BOUAZZA N, CHERIFI K, BABALI B (Djillali Liabès Univ, Sidi Bel Abbés- 22000, Algeria) : Phytodiversity and dynamics of Quercus faginea sub sp. tlemcenensis stands in the moutas reserve - Tlemcen (North-Western Algeria). Eco Env Cons 2021, 27(2), 574-84.
Using a phytoecological approach, our study aims to understand the phytodiversity and the dynamics of the Quercus faginea subsp. tlemcenensis stands structuring the vegetation in the Moutas reserve (Tlemcen region, north-west Algeria). One of the essential chracteristics of the vegetation in the study area is its great plant diversity. The flora listed in all the phyto-sociological surveys carried out in the field includes 299 plant species belonging to 57 families and 202 genera. Our work is focused on the ecological interest of inventoried species, their taxonomies and their dynamics. This research allowed us to establish a census of the current vegetation various strata which are often of great ecological plasticity, but also to gather and analyze all the ecological and floristic elements which we have to better understand the evolution of this phyto-genetics capital. The floristic data analysis by factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) and the ascending hierarchical classification (AHC) identified the main factors governing the distribution of plant formations in the study area and brought out four major groups (Gr A, Gr B, Gr C and Gr D) of plant populations according to their regressive spatial dynamics; forest, pre-forest, scrub and therophyte. This regression of vegetation is linked to climate change (drought) and to the pressure of the environment (fires, erosion, agriculture) contributing to an aridification followed by the installation of therophytic, toxic and / or thorny species.
7 illus, 41 ref
SULASMI I S, BUDIASTUTI M T S, SUTARNO, ROSYANI
001269 SULASMI I S, BUDIASTUTI M T S, SUTARNO, ROSYANI (Sebelas Maret Univ, Central Java, Indonesia) : Sustainable harvesting of Jernang rattan (Daemonorops draco Willd.) by Anak Dalam Tribe in Jebak Village, Batanghari, Jambi Province. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27(2), 567-73.
The Conservation of tropical trees can be achieved if supported by the sustainable use of the forest by community living nearby through harvesting of nontimber woods, for instance, rattan. Furthermore, rattan jernang (Daemonorops draco Willd.) individuals and trees have significant associations. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the utilization of rattan jernang (Daemonorops draco Wild) related to the forest tree biodiversity by the Anak Dalam tribe in Jebak village, Muara Tembesi, Batanghari Jambi. The study has identified that populations of rattan jernang (Daemonorops draco) were 6 clumps in the forests and 100 clumps in plantations, in Sarolangun Jambi. Moreover, 65 individual trees consisted of 30 species were identified as rattan jernang hosts and conserved by the community. Dialium platyespalyum and Quercus elmeri, were rattan host trees with the highest populations in the area. Meanwhile, the biodiversity of nonhost trees consisted of 30 individual trees from 15 species. Interviews revealed that traditional harvesters have acknowledged that trees have significant important ecological roles for the rattan livelihood and therefore it is very important to conserve the forests for the sustainability of harvest in the future. Furthermore, to secure the availability of rattan, the traditional harvesters had started rattan plantation in Sarolangun Jambi.
5 illus, 2 tables, 25 ref
KOZLOV A V, KOPOSOVA N N, UROMOVA I P, KROTOVA E A, MATVEEVA A V, VESELOVA A Y
001268 KOZLOV A V, KOPOSOVA N N, UROMOVA I P, KROTOVA E A, MATVEEVA A V, VESELOVA A Y (Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical Univ, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) : The level of ecological and geochemical features of water from specially protected natural lakes of Russia. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27(2), 563-6.
The study presents a primary ecological and geochemical analysis of water from lakes in the left-bank part of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Russia), which are the objects of specially protected natural areas of the region. In general, waters of the studied water bodies revealed approximately the same trend in the content of basic substances, including neutral acidity in the range of 6.04-7.78 pH, soft and medium hardness in the range of 0.19-5.95 mg-eq./l, ultra-fresh and fresh mineralization in the range of 20-232 mg/l. The identified levels of indicators are typical for natural water bodies located in the area of natural podzolic pedogenesis of the southern taiga zone.
1 table, 13 ref
AYU M S, HARTATI R, SUNARYO, ARIO R, WIDIANINGSIH W, SOEGIANTO A
001267 AYU M S, HARTATI R, SUNARYO, ARIO R, WIDIANINGSIH W, SOEGIANTO A (Marine Science Dep, Diponegoro Univ, Semarang, Indonesia) : The abundance of Holothuria (Halodeima) atra (Jaeger, 1833) in Karimunjawa and Sintok Island, Karimunjawa National Park, Jepara, Indonesia related to density of seagrass. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27(2), 555-62.
Seagrasses have been known as one of the most important marine resources. They provide a great ecological important marine ecosystem service. They also have function to provide habitat for a variety of life forms in coastal waters as well as serving as nursery, shelter and feeding area for many species, including sea cucumber. The objectives of the present work was to determine the relationship between Holothuria (Halodeima) atra (Jaeger, 1833) abundance and seagrass density in Alang-alang waters and Pancuran waters of Karimunjawa and Sintok Island of Karimunjawa National Park. Quadrant transects of 50x50 cm2 were applied to observe the seagrass species, density and coverage as well as to determine the abundance of H. atra in different locations with dense, medium, low density of seagrass. The results showed that there were medium coverage conditions of seagrass in research locations, where in Pancuran waters found more percentage coverage than other locations. It also had more (8) species of seagrass, i.e. Enhalusacoroides, Thalassia hemprichii, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis, Halodule pinifolia, Cymodocea rotundata, Cymodocea serrulata, and Syringodium isoetifolium while in Alang-Alang and Sintok Waters found only five species. Based on density of seagrass the denser seagrass the more abundance the H. atra. So that in Karimunjawa National Park, the abundance of H. atra found to have strong to very strong relationship with seagrass density that showed its importance as habitat as well as food source for H. atra populations.
2 illus, 3 tables, 30 ref
AL-ABODY M A K, RAMADHAN M N, MUHSIN S J
001266 AL-ABODY M A K, RAMADHAN M N, MUHSIN S J (Field Crops Dep, Basrah Univ, Iraq) : Effect of humic acid on the growth, yield components, and yield of three sunflower cultivars (Helianthus annuus L.). Eco Env Cons 2021, 27(2), 548-54.
A field experiment was carried out during the Spring 2020 season at Al-Huwair area, north of Basra Governorate, to evaluate the effect of sprinkling three levels of humic acid (0, 3, 6 and 9 ml l-1) on the growth and yield of three sunflower cultivars; namely Zahrat al Iraq, Aqmar, and Flamme. The Aqmar cultivars provided the highest mean of plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, head diameter, number of seeds per head, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, and percentage of oil. The point of humic acid (9) mL/L-1 gave the highest mean of plant height, stem diameter, leafy area, head diameter, number of seeds per head, weight of 1000 seeds, yield of seeds, and percentage of oil. The effect of the cultivar interaction and humic acid concentration levels was important. The Aqmar cultivar recorded the highest mean of plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, head diameter, number of seeds per head, weight of 1000 seeds, seed yield, and percentage of oil at (9) mL/L-1 concentration level.
9 tables, 17 ref
TONGWANICHNIYOM S, PATTAMAPITOON T, SANGVICHIEN N, PHORNPHISUTTHIMAS S
001265 TONGWANICHNIYOM S, PATTAMAPITOON T, SANGVICHIEN N, PHORNPHISUTTHIMAS S (Kasetsart Univ, Chonburi- 202 30, Thailand) : Production of calcium oxide from waste oyster shells for a value-added application of antibacteria. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27(2), 539-47.
The production of calcium oxide was investigated from waste oyster shells as a value-added application in inhibiting bacteria. Oyster shell powder was prepared in 4 forms: natural oyster shell powder (NOSP) and calcined in a programmable furnace for 2 hours at 700 °C (OSP700), 800 °C (OSP800) and 900 °C (OSP900). All forms were analyzed for physical properties using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fouriertransformed infrared spectrometry. The results indicated that the calcium carbonate of NOSP, OSP700 and OSP800 had a rhombohedral structure of calcite. On the other hand, the calcium carbonate structure of OSP900 changed to calcium oxide (CaO) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 ). The findings were consistent with the Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry results as they showed the peak of C–O stretching, indicating a calcite structure, whereas the characteristics of the Ca=O group and O–H stretching of the functional group indicated the structures of CaO and Ca(OH)2 . OSP900 showed qualitative antibacterial activity by its inhibition zone on NA medium. Quantitatively, OSP900 had the highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0% w/v, respectively, with significant differences for an exposure time of 30 minutes. In addition, OSP900 gave the best inhibition of E. coli in contaminated vegetables at a concentration of 0.5% w/v. The results of this study revealed the usefulness of OSP900 for further antibacterial applications in contaminated vegetables.
8 illus, 4 tables, 23 ref
DAS P, MANNA S, BASAK P
001262 DAS P, MANNA S, BASAK P (Jadavpur Univ, Kolkata- 700 032, West Bengal) : Analyzing the effect of environmental factors (temperature and humidity) on the outspread of COVID-19 around the globe. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 386-94.
The emergence of the pandemic around the world owing to COVID-19 is putting the world into a big threat. Many factors may be involved in the transmission of this deadly disease but not much-supporting data are available. Till now few evidences have been reported supporting that temperature changes can affect COVID-19 transmission. This work aims to correlate the effect of temperature with that of Total Cases, Recovery, Death, and Critical cases all around the globe. All the data were collected in April and the maximum and minimum temperature and the average temperature were collected from January to April (i.e the months during which the disease was spread). Regression was conducted to find a non-linear relationship between Temperate and the cases. Non-linear regression using Generalized Linear Model With Log Link was used to find a suitable model to describe the cases. It was evident that indeed temperature does have a significant effect on the total cases and recovery rate around the globe. It was also evident from the study that the countries with lower temperatures are the hotspots for COVID-19. The Study depicted a non-linear dose-response between temperature and the transmission, indicating the existence of the best temperature for its transmission. This study can indeed put some light on how temperature can be a significant factor in COVID-19 transmission.
10 illus, 1 table, 12 ref
FARIDI N, BHATT S, RAJ M P, AGARWAL A, MISHRA S P, PATHAK D, PANDE V, PANDEY M, BALA M
001261 FARIDI N, BHATT S, RAJ M P, AGARWAL A, MISHRA S P, PATHAK D, PANDE V, PANDEY M, BALA M (Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research, Haldwani-263 139, Uttarakhand) : Evaluation of primer specificity used for detection and formation of viable but non-culturable forms of Ralstonia solanacearum. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 381-5.
Ralstonia solanacearum is Gram-negative bacterial phyto-pathogens, which cause bacterial wilt disease in several vegetable crops of Solanaceae family. The bacterium is mainly soil and water borne in nature and spread through running water between different agricultural fields. In environment it can survive as VBNC (Viable But Not Culturable) state. Reverse Transcriptase qPCR (RT-qPCR) targeting housekeeping genes is a promising and reliable technique used to detect the VBNC forms of the pathogen. In present investigation three housekeeping genes namely, 16S rRNA, RpoS, and Omp, were evaluated for their specificity. Further to access the viability of the cells 16srDNA (16S rRNA) gene transcript was determined along with pathogenicity test. Strains of R. solanacearum DIBER-117 showed a 20% decrease in 16SrDNA gene transcriptome after 480 days. Among the three sets of primers tested, the primer targeting 16s rDNA is found to have better specificity.
3 illus, 1 table, 18 ref
OLIWI M S, JUBIER A R, ALWAN B M
001258 OLIWI M S, JUBIER A R, ALWAN B M (Al Qasim Green Univ, Iraq) : Evaluating the availability of nutrient elements (N, P, K) for the soils of Al Kifl district in babil governorate using geographic information systems (GIS). Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 365-70.
The study area was chosen in the Kifl district of Babel governorate, which is about 30 km south of the city of Hilla, the governorate center in Iraq, and its area is 49,553.04 hectares. Samples were obtained from 50 sites from the surface depth 0-30 cm. The samples were preserved and prepared from drying, milling and sifting and laboratory measurements were conducted on them. Necessary and important for the purpose of fertility evaluation, including organic matter and the percentage of N, P, K, CEC, CE, pH, CaCO3 and ESP. The fertility assessment maps and the spatial distribution map of organic matter and CEC and N, P, K have been drawn. The results showed that the soil of the study area has good fertility status and that the variety F1 occupied the largest area of the study area, the percentage of organic matter was good, the salinity was low, and the ratios of nutrients, N, P, and K were high.
7 illus, 2 tables, 13 ref
HAPANI U, HIGHLAND H N, SOLANKI H, GEORGE L-B
001257 HAPANI U, HIGHLAND H N, SOLANKI H, GEORGE L-B (Environmental Sciences Dep, Gujarat Univ, Ahmedabad- 380 009, Gujarat) : Extraction of cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass and their application in handmade paper making. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 358-64.
In the present study, Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) stems are used for the extraction of cellulose and successfully applied for handmade paper making. The obtained cellulose characterized using chemical analysis, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical analysis evidenced that treated chickpea stem has 49.23% cellulose content. The FTIR analysis revealed changes in functional groups indicate removal of non-cellulosic constituents. The XRD analysis evidenced that extracted cellulose has a 53% crystallinity index. DSC studies demonstrate extracted cellulose stand at higher thermal degradation temperatures from 337 o C to 368 o C. The morphology of the extracted cellulose showed a coarse and fibrous surface. The physical properties of the hand made paper produced from chickpea cellulose pulp indicate the suitability of chickpea stem cellulose as an alternative non-wood source for the pulp and paper industry
5 illus, 2 tables, 32 ref
SHAH R V, ACHARYA A B
001256 SHAH R V, ACHARYA A B (T A Pai Management Institute, Manipal- 576 104, Karnataka) : Waste management businesses and sustainable development goals - Exploring linkages. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 350-7.
This study attempts to map the linkages between Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and waste management businesses. It also tries to understand the role that waste management businesses can play in achieving the common goals through the case of a waste management firm in Mumbai (India). Interviews with the firm’s key personnel are used for data collection in addition to other external sources. Using content analysis, we find that the firm’s presence can be seen on all the 17 SDGs. While 12 out of the 17 SDGs are impacted due to the business operations, the remaining five SDGs are affected due to the societal orientation of the firm. These impacts are weak, moderate or strong in nature. The findings of this study can be useful to policymakers in framing policies that can help businesses in this area and achieve SDGs at the same time. JEL Classification codes: L31; Q53; Q56; Q58.
RUMYANTSEV D E
001254 RUMYANTSEV D E (Mytisci Branch of Bauman State Technical Univ, Moscow, Russia) : Dendroclimatic diagnostics of pine and spruce growth in the kivach reserve (Russian Karelia). Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 322-9.
The results of the correlation analysis of Norway spruce and Scots pine growth at the conditions of the Kivach Reserve are discussed in the article. High summer temperatures of the previous season have negative effect on Norway spruce radial growth. High amounts of February precipitation are negative for spruce growth too. The effect of climatic impact on pine radial growth is different for different sites. A positive reaction for the above-mentioned average amounts of June precipitation is a specific feature of chronologies from dry growing sites of pine trees. A significant positive correlation with February precipitation is typical for chronologies from semi-wet sites. Chronologies from bogs (except bogs from lakesides) negatively correlate with November precipitation of the previous calendar year. The negative effect of high December temperatures is significant for most sample areas from different pine growing sites.
3 illus, 43 ref
MULLA A I, PATHADE G R
001253 MULLA A I, PATHADE G R (Environmental Science Dep, Fergusson Coll, Pune, Maharashtra) : Vermicomposting process parameter optimization for feed of biomethanation sludge, fruits and vegetable waste (FVW) using Eisenia fetida species. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 315-21.
The present research work was carried out with an objective to optimize important parameters viz., incubation period, pH and moisture percent for vermicomposting using biomethanation sludge, fruits and vegetable waste (FVW) and earthworm species Eisenia fetida. The biomethanation digester running on FVW was used for the sludge collection. The FVW was collected from Gultekadi Market Yard, Pune and used for experiments after its processing. The dewatered sludge was admixed with partially decomposed fruits and vegetable waste (PDFVW). The plastic trays of 1kg working capacity were used for optimization of parameters. The results showed that incubation period of six weeks, pH 7.0 and moisture content of 80-90% were optimum condition for vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida. The average growth rate mg/worm /day for optimized incubation period, pH and moisture % was 4.9±0.18, 5.7±0.06 and 7.3±0.3, respectively and at all the three optimized conditions, it was 8±0.04.
4 illus, 5 tables, 26 ref
KURIAN A L
001252 KURIAN A L (Mahatma Gandhi Univ, Kottayam, Kerala) : Ecotourism and conservation refugees: The Indian scenario. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 308-14.
Ecotourism has profound role particularly in emerging economies like India but the ground realities of wildlife conservation in India are quite uncertain and ambiguous. Protected areas are contentious as those are significant for conservation and these conservation initiatives diffuse fortune (for conservationists and wildlife tourists) and misfortune (for local tribal population due to livelihood jeopardy and eviction for conservation) unevenly. The mushrooming of protected areas across India creates conservation refugees who are the people displaced by the creation of protected areas; actually they are the victims of ecological expropriation. Conservation initiatives have a history of marginalizing indigenous people living in areas designated for conservation which made conservation most elusive today. The tribal communities are paying a brutal price for tailor made agendas to boost safari, create protected areas and attract tourism. Recent steps for eviction of up to nine million indigenous people in India who has ancestral link to the land and forest gains stiff opposition. Conservation initiatives that boot out stakeholder communities may preserve natural resources but denying livelihood opportunities. India as a developing nation with huge population cannot promote the scheme of pristine nature preservation initiatives due to the socioeconomic and political reverberations. In short, framing and sustaining vigorous multifaceted policies for protected areas necessitates honesty when considering its dooms and boons also there requires a readiness to share it with those who incur the costs will only has commendable outcomes.
1 illus, 1 table, 61 ref
KOKANE M R, ANURADHA V, REVATHI K, SETHI S N, KARTHIKEYAN P, MARIGOUDAR S R, SURENDER C , RAJAN R, METAR S Y
001250 KOKANE M R, ANURADHA V, REVATHI K, SETHI S N, KARTHIKEYAN P, MARIGOUDAR S R, SURENDER C , RAJAN R, METAR S Y (Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training, Royapuram, Chennai) : Life cycle study of ragged sea hare, Bursatella leachii (Blainville, 1817) inhabiting the inter-tidal waters of Pulicat Lake, Tamil Nadu, India. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 297-301.
The species Bursatella leachii was collected from the intertidal waters of Pulicat Lake. The study was carried out at controlled room temp. in glass aquaria’s; the mating occurred in the form of unilateral copulating with chain formation. Only the first animal acted as receptor, the second and succeeding animals acted as donors. It releases the fertilized eggs like spaghetti, packaged in capsules to form a cylindrical string called an egg mass. The number of capsule per cm of the egg masses varies from 25 to 55 capsules and each capsule contained 5 to 19 eggs. After spawning, the egg masses were light yellowish greenish, it changed to golden brown. The embryo developed into trochophore stage and began to rotate within the egg capsule in first 4-5 days; 6-8 days onwards it develops the precursor of the velum called prevelum. At 7- 8 days after spawning, the prevelum is transformed into the velum and attend veliger stage. Between 8-12 days the veligers hatched as free-swimming larvae. Metamorphic stage began: on 16 to 19 days shell get detached and villae start appearing whole body like spines, 19th to 20th days larvae become benthic and 30th to 40th days it transformed to adult stag.
1 illus, 23 ref
YADAV V, SINGH R K
001248 YADAV V, SINGH R K (Agronomy Dep, Banaras Hindu Univ, Varanasi- 221 005, Uttar Pradesh) : Comparative quantification of carbon sequestration in sole crops and Bael based agri-hortisystem. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 288-91.
Carbon sequestration has been proposed as an important means for mitigating climate change, particularly in medium and longer range. Fossil fuels will remain the dominate source of energy well into the 21st century. Carbon sequestration is a potential solution for limiting the atmospheric release of carbon dioxide emissions that may contribute to global warming. A field study was conducted during rainy (kharif) season of 2018 at Agricultural Research Farm in Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, Banaras Hindu University, Barkachha, Mirzapur under two systems, viz., in open system and in bael based agri-horti system. Black gram, sesame, green gram, soybean, and pearl millet were sown solely in open system and also grown in interspaces between the rows of bael trees in 12 year-old agroforestry system. The result showed that in bael based agrihorti system, the bael+soybean variety ‘JS-20229’observed significantly higher above ground biomass (4045.71 kg/m2 ) and below ground biomass (1049.88 kg/m2 ) over other treatments. Similar trend was observed in case of above ground carbon sequestration (1819.57 kg/m2 ) and below ground carbon sequestration (472.34 kg/m2 ). However, in the sole system, the highest above ground biomass (4.22 kg/m2 ) and below ground biomass (1.10kg/m2 ) was observed in pearl millet variety ‘PHB-2168’ which was at par with pearl millet variety ‘Nandi-52. Similarly, in sole crop, maximum aboveg round carbon sequestration (1.90 kg/m2 ) and below ground carbon sequestration (0.49 kg/m2 ) was recorded in pearl millet variety ‘PHB-2168’.
2 tables, 8 ref
001246 JOSEPH J (Economics Dep, Mar Thoma Coll, Thiruvalla, Kerala) : Climate change and its impact on agriculture sector in India. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 274-7.
In the context of the Indian economy climate change is a serious issue. Increase in the number of warm days and nights, increased frequency of deficit monsoons and heavy precipitation events, increased occurrence of temperature extremes have been observed in our country. Moreover, these trends are expected to continue over years.India is projected to experience warming above global level throughout the 21st century. The average temperature variation is projected to be 2.33 °C to 4.78 °C with a doubling in CO2 concentrations. Climate change is likely to directly influence food production across the globe. Increase in the mean seasonal temperature of the country can reduce the duration of many crops and hence reduce the yield.This paper delivers an overview of climate change and Indian agriculture. It gives some specific attention to the impact of climate change on Indian agriculture. The paper ends with some comments on Indian agricultural policy in the era of climate change and suggest strategies and actions to mitigate the problem.
2 illus, 14 ref
MAHENTHIRAN S, GANESAN M, RAJKUMAR L V, SRIDHAR N
001245 MAHENTHIRAN S, GANESAN M, RAJKUMAR L V, SRIDHAR N (Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore- 632 014, Tamil Nadu) : Quantification and classification of groundwater - lake water exchange using conventional method. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 267-73.
The Water balance of Veeranam Lake is calculated by considering all inflow and outflow components of lake. Inflow components of Veeranam lake include direct rainfall, Vadavar River inflow, ungauged catchment inflow whereas outflow components of the lake include evaporation and discharge of water for various activities (CMWSSB pumping outflow, Irrigational outflow, Lalpet Weir outflow, VNSS outflow). Ungauged catchment runoff to Veeranam Lake is estimated by Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method. About 42% of rainfall volume in the catchment is infiltrated into the ground and 58% of rainfall volume, flow as a direct surface runoff into the Veeranam Lake. Groundwater inflow and outflow to lake are commonly expressed as net groundwater exchange and it is estimated as 53% of total outflow components of the lake. Veeranam Lake is dominated by both the inflow and outflow components of the lake. The calculated net groundwater exchange is negative and this indicates that Veeranam Lake recharges the nearby aquifer zones.
3 illus, 21 ref
SINGH A, RAI P K, DEKA G, BISWAS B, PRASAD D, RAI V K
001244 SINGH A, RAI P K, DEKA G, BISWAS B, PRASAD D, RAI V K (Geography Dep, Mizoram Univ, Aizawl) : Management of natural resources through integrated watershed management in Nana Kosi micro watershed, district Almora, India. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 259-66.
The watershed has been recognised as a unit for integrated resource management, where management is not merely limited to land, water and biomass; but also concerned with integration for self-reliance and holistic development of the rural population. The Uttarakhand Himalaya present an incomprehensible mixed risk prone ecosystem largely due to land degradation, hydrological discrepancies, low productivity, soil erosion and a pauperized subsistence economy. There is a need for sustainable strategy for redressal of the pressing natural and socio-economic problems. In an operational context, this would mean integrating different uses and management of resources through an inter-disciplinary approach, and towards alleviation of poverty. Keeping in this, this study has been focused on the analysis and management of natural resources through Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) in high altitude of Himalayan area of Nana Kosi river watershed. The present paper assesses the prevailing conditions in the Nana Kosi micro watershed and suggests strategies for the sustainable development.
1 illus, 2 tables, 32 ref
THOMAS R P, SREEKUMAR K R, BIJESHMON P P, PAUL J
001243 THOMAS R P, SREEKUMAR K R, BIJESHMON P P, PAUL J (Botany Dep, CMS Coll Kottayam, Kerala) : Angiosperm diversity of agro-ecosystems-A case study from Kooroppada Gramapanchayath, Kottayam, Kerala State. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 253-8.
The diversity of angiosperms in Kooroppada gramapanchayath has been analysed. The angiosperm species diversity indicated that nine sites had uniform diversity due to plantation of agro-ecosystem in nature. The highest distribution frequencies showed by Ageratum conyzoides, Glycosmis pentaphylla and Hevea brasiliensis in herbs, shrubs and climbers and trees categories respectively. Oldenlandia corymbosa, Psychotria flavida and Hevea brasiliensis showed the highest density values among the herbs, shrubs and climbers and trees categories respectively. The abundance value showed highest in herbs by Bambusa vulgaris and Bulbophyllum sterile, in shrubs and climbers by Psychotria flavida and in among trees by Hevea brasiliensis. During the study, the Rubiaceae endemic shrub Ixora johnsonii Hook.f has encountered in rubber plantations. The Shannon Weiner index indicated that the species are distributed uniformly and show high diversity without dominant species.
4 tables, 17 ref
KESHAV L, RAMESH V, PRASAD M R
001242 KESHAV L, RAMESH V, PRASAD M R (Velagapudi Ramakrishna Siddhartha Engineering Coll, Vijayawada- 520 007, Andhra Pradesh) : Simplified computer-Aided Hydraulic design of clariflocculator of water treatment plant. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 245-52.
This work presents a very useful software tool to design Clariflocculator, most important secondary unit in both water and wastewater treatment plant WTP. The detailed design steps and calculation for its each component are also presented. Its hydraulic design is complex, tedious and quantitative. An effort is made to simplify the entire manual operations with commonly available MS office tool. This method is being used in WTP in Krishna river bank, Vijayawada, India. This spreadsheet is frugal by design, helps in errorfree calculations and can be used any quantity design. The entire manual operations are simplified and made user-friendly for designers.
10 illus, 1 table, 7 ref
CHUG R, MUKHERJI M D, UPADHYAY E, GOUR V S
001239 CHUG R, MUKHERJI M D, UPADHYAY E, GOUR V S (Amity Univ, Rajasthan, Jaipur) : Investigating the promising potential of bacterial EPS for mitigating environmental issues. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 226-8.
Extracellular polymeric substances extracted from microorganisms are a complex mixture of diverse polymers of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, uronic acid, humic acid. These heterogeneous biomolecules have a vast potential in bioremediation/metal removal and their proficiency can also be emphasized by the fact that after extraction these are not vulnerable to deviation in the climatic conditions. Considering the above facts, in the current study experiments have been conducted to study bioremediation potential of EPS extracted from bacteria in a view to suggest better alternatives to conventional physicochemical methods of bioremediation.
3 tables, 11 ref
DUTTA S, PANDEY D, SHUKLA S
001237 DUTTA S, PANDEY D, SHUKLA S (Amity Univ, Haryana, Gurugram) : A mini review on application of GIS and remote sensing in municipal solid waste management. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 215-8.
The municipal solid waste and remarkable increase in waste production because of increased population and urbanization is a vital issue at the global level. The inadequate infrastructure for disposal and management is a serious concern across the world. The present article gives a comprehensive review of the role of remote sensing and GIS in municipal solid waste disposal. Various studies have suggested that these techniques can be widely utilized in potential landfill site identification as well as for assessment of pollutant emission. The GIS based model has been utilized in assessment of groundwater pollution. It is well established that the remote sensing and GIS techniques can be integrated with field and laboratory based studies for a consistent spatio-temporal monitoring of the landfill sites.
DASH S R S, REDDY M K
001236 DASH S R S, REDDY M K (Environmental Sciences Dep, Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management Univ, Visakhapatnam- 530 045, Andhra Pradesh) : Knowledge and segregation of municipal solid waste in Visakhapatnam City, India. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 210-4.
Improper disposal of municipal solid waste can create unsanitary conditions which in turn cause pollution, waste of resources and breeding place for vectors. Segregation, recycling and disposal of municipal solid waste may reduce pollution. The present study aims to evaluate the knowledge of people about the segregation of solid waste. As Visakhapatnam municipality has introduced dry waste and wet waste with separate dustbins in various areas of Visakhapatnam. The proper use of these dustbins, collection of waste, recycling and disposal of waste make the city clean and green. In our study different houses with different habits were identified, a survey was conducted and data was collected. Most people lack knowledge about dry and wet waste. And get confused about wet and dry waste. In this study difference between dry and wet was clearly explained and motivated people to follow for a better city.
4 illus, 3 tables, 12 ref
MALIK D S, SHARMA M K, SHARMA A K, SHARMA A K
001235 MALIK D S, SHARMA M K, SHARMA A K, SHARMA A K (Zoology and Environmental Science Dep, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, Uttarakhand) : Status of fish diversity and their habitat ecology in the upper Ganga Basin, Uttarakhand. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 205-9.
Ganges is the largest riverine ecosystem of India and supports diverse aquatic community compared to others aquatic ecosystem. The aim of the present study was carried out to assess the fish diversity status in relation to major physico-chemical parameters on spatiotemporal scales. Fish species were collected along with physicochemical parameters from selected eight sampling zones of the upper Ganga basin from September 2017 to August 2018. Aquatic diversity status was analysed with the help of PAST (version 3.0) software. The result of present experimental study clearly indicated that upper Ganga river basin provides the natural habitat of 27 fish species as Tor putitora (8.54%), Tor tor (10.68%), Schizothorax richardsonii (11.50%) and S. plagiostomus (10.95%) are major dominant species. Water temperature, water velocity and dissolved oxygen contributed as major influential ecological factors for fish species richness and their distribution in the upper Ganga river ecosystem.
1 illus, 1 table, 14 ref
SUBBIAH S, PARTHIBAN P, MAHESH R, DAS A
001234 SUBBIAH S, PARTHIBAN P, MAHESH R, DAS A (Ponnaiyah Ramajayam Institute of Science and Technology Univ, Thanjavur- 613 403, Tamilnadu) : Fuzzy - Augmented eospatial stormwater suitability modeling for Chennai City of India. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 198-204.
Over the years, with spatio-temporal fluctuation in monsoonal precipitation, supported by rapid changes in landuse pattern, has created severe water-stress, especially in major urban cities of India, including Chennai. Under such changing scenario, proper delineation of stormwater regimes play a very vital role in designing an effective water management plan. With this view the present research work has been carried, with regard to Chennai city of India, by utilizing the thematic geospatial database, with integrated Fuzzybased expert system, so as to demarcate the litho-climatic zones suitable for surface harvesting of stormwater. The geospatial analysis carried out in this work involves base map-preparation, with soil, precipitation, landcover, drainage, slope and road-layers. The specific set of attributes catering to different regions of the study area were evaluated with regard to stormwater suitability index, obtained by fuzzy inference system (FIS) using MATLAB, employing triangular membership functions, domain/expert based rule-set and weightages based on UC Davis Extension Fuzzy approach. The study reveals distinct delineation of storm water suitability zonation, ranging from very high (33.09 %) to high (25.70 %) to medium (24.46 %) to low (11.53 %) to exceptionally low (5.20%). The present geospatial approach, fuzzy-expert-system and specific weightages are easily replicable for other regions, as well, with suitable calibration.
10 illus, 2 tables, 24 ref
001233 TRIPATHY A (Applied Science and Humanities Dep, ABES Engineering Coll, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh) : Techno-economic feasibility of flue gases recirculation in heat recovery for urea plants. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 192-7.
Energy efficiency and its conservation is one of the ways to bridge the gap between demand and supply, and to mitigate the environmental impacts of rapid development. The climatic condition of earth is largely affected by greenhouse emission and global warming. However, a planned energy cycle of production, conversion and utilization of these gases can solve global environmental problems. In fertilizer plant energy conservation aims in reduction of specific energy consumption. Urea is one of the important and widely produced chemicals in the world. This paper describes some of the modification in urea/ammonia plants understanding the flammability diagrams through actual experimentation through inline monitoring would mix the inerts, fuel and oxygen escape safely from explosive range.
6 illus, 3 tables, 9 ref
TYAGI R, KATHPALIA J
001232 TYAGI R, KATHPALIA J (Sociology Dep, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural Univ, Hisar, Haryana) : Comparative analysis between direct seeded rice and conventional transplanted rice method. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 187-91.
Rice accounts for a significant contribution to the total food grain production in India and is grown in 43.86 million ha, the production level is 104.80 million tones and the productivity is about 2390 kg/ha (Agricultural Statistics at a glance-2015). Rohila et al. (2015) also mentioned in their study that Haryana is second largest state in central procurement pool of rice after Punjab. Most of the Direct Seede Rice (DSR) cultivators (75.00%) were agreed that demand were increasing day by day in view of depletion of water resources followed by disagree (16.00%) and undecided (9.00%) whereas 51% conventional adopters were agreed on same prospects followed by disagree (33.00%) and undecided (33.00%). DSR adopters categorized DSR as best rice production technology in water crisis situation. Overwhelming majority of the DSR adopters (87.00%) agreed that DSR is the less labour required technology and only 47.00% conventional growers agreed on it. Almost all the DSR adopters (95.00%) agreed that DSR require less water than transplanting and 79.00% agreed that their past experience favoured them direct-seeded rice (DSR) over transplanting whereas same response were given only by 53.00% and 46.00% conventional growers respectively. Most of the DSR cultivators (65.00%) were agreed that DSR best suited to climate change followed by undecided (19.00%) and disagree (16.00%) whereas 45.00% conventional adopters were agreed on same prospects followed by disagree (42.00%) and undecided (13.00%).
3 tables, 13 ref
SARMA P K, SARMA K, DAS J K, DAS J P, TALUKDAR B K
001231 SARMA P K, SARMA K, DAS J K, DAS J P, TALUKDAR B K (Geography Dep, Mangaldai Coll, Darrang, Assam) : Tracing out of elephant corridors and landscape dynamics of Eastern Assam using geospatial tools: A case study in Tinsukia District of Assam, India. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 178-86.
The Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) is listed as endangered in the IUCN Red list as the wild population has declined by at least 50% since the 1930s. Massive deforestation, developmental activities, increased human population have destroyed the age-old corridors of elephant in many parts of Southeast Asia including Assam. This ‘corridor’ plays a vital role in maintaining population viability across a larger landscape. In the present study status of 4 presently utilized elephant corridors of Tinsukia district of Assam have been assessed on temporal scale for the years 2011 and 2020. The land use and land cover study results show that there was substantial increase in areas of settlement, tea gardens and agricultural land on all the corridors that restrict the free movements of the tuskers and caused conflicts in many parts. Out of the four corridors Takuaoni-Kakojan corridor was found to be least affected by these anthropogenic activities. On the Bagapani corridor besides the pressure of human activities, the National Highway 38 and railway traffic was recognized as the killer of multiple numbers of elephants on its track.
5 illus, 2 tables, 28 ref
JADHAV S D, JADHAV M S
001230 JADHAV S D, JADHAV M S (Basic Science & Humanities Dep, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed Univ, Pune- 411 043, Maharashtra) : Evaluation of ground water quality with special reference to sulphate concentration of rural area near Karad City, (Satara) Maharashtra. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 174-7.
This study involves the analysis of the groundwater quality, and the evaluation of its physicochemical characteristics. Groundwater is directly related to human existence and to the sustainable development of a society, because it plays an important role as a water resource. More than two billion people worldwide depend on groundwater for their daily water supply, and a large proportion of the world’s agricultural and industrial water requirements are supplied by groundwater. Groundwater is not just any water below the ground surface but water found in rocks that are permeable enough to permit reasonable quantity of water to yield into wells. Due to an increasing demand for groundwater in response to rapidly growing urban, industrial, and agricultural water requirements, several countries, especially those in arid and semi-arid zones, are experiencing water shortages now a days. The ground water samples from nine sampling stations around Karad tahsil area were tasted for the physicochemical analysis and results were compared to the World Health Organization Standard (WHO) to determine its suitability for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes.
001229 BAGCHI B (Bangabasi Coll, Kolkata- 700 009, West Bengal) : Diversity of endophytic fungi in lianas-butea superba from West Medinipur District and its seasonal and regional variation. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 168-73.
To determine diversity of endophytic fungi associated with lianas from three different forest localities of West Medinipur district. Samples were collected randomly in various seasons. Fungi were isolated and identified based on mycelial shape and structure; sexual and asexual reproductive characters; attachment of spores and cultural conditions. A total of 428 endophytic isolates were obtained from 675 different sample segments. Colonization frequency is 63.39%. In Chilkigark highest number of endophytes have been isolated. In monsoon highest percentage (95.98%) were isolated. Dominant endophytic fungi are Fusarium, Chaetomium, Lasiodiplodia, Verticillium. Maximum endophytic isolates were obtained from stem segments followed by leaves and petioles. Among all endophytic fungi class Deuteromycetes were dominant over other fungal classes. Shannon-Weiner and Simpson’s indices showed rich diversity of endophytic fungi. This indices suggest even and uniform occurrence of various species.
1 illus, 9 tables, 16 ref
KAVANA R, NAGARAJA B C
001225 KAVANA R, NAGARAJA B C (Environmental Sciences Dep, Bangalore Univ, Bangalore- 560 056) : Institutional ecological footprint analysis - Case study of Bangalore University Campus, South India. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 144-9.
The purpose of doing Ecological Footprint analysis for any University is to understand and have a clear view of the Institution’s Ecological impact and sustainability practices. To make staff and students realize the importance of sustainability and motivating them to get into action. It serves as a base for future policymaking. The Objective of the study is to carry out an inventory on Food, Energy, Water, Waste generation, Land use pattern and to estimate the Ecological Footprint of the Campus. The methodology, Equivalent and yield factors required for the estimations were taken from Wackernagel and Rees. From the Ecological Footprint analysis, it was found that the Bangalore University campus was weakly sustainable. By making use of the unused potential, there is still scope for adopting sustainability practices in the University making it strongly sustainable. Food followed by energy consumption was the major contributing factor for the Ecological Footprint of the campus. It is the first case study on Ecological Footprint analysis done for Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi campus and very few studies are available in Indian universities. University can reduce the waste generation and implement solar project to reduce Ecological Footprint. Also, restoration of bio-park becomes essential to strengthen the Biocapacity of the campus.
3 tables, 30 ref
KUMARASWAMY T R, RAVISHANKAR S S, NAGARAJA B C
001224 KUMARASWAMY T R, RAVISHANKAR S S, NAGARAJA B C (Environmental Sciences Dep, Bangalore Univ, Bangalore, Karnataka) : Three decadal land use and land cover changes in the Cauvery river Basin, India. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 138-43.
The Cauvery river basin is one of the most agriculturally intensive basin, has been facing water shortage and climatic variations in the last decade. To understand the influence of human interventions on the natural environment, it is essential to critically examine the changes in land use and land cover over the decades. The objective of this study is to assess land use and land cover change in the Cauvery river basin, for the last three decades using LANDSAT series satellite images. The changes in land use and land cover change were mapped and computed using geospatial techniques. The multitemporal LANDSAT images were classified by supervised maximum likelihood method to generate the corresponding land use/cover maps; the postclassification technique subsequently detected changes in land use and land cover in the river basin. The results of the study revealed a drastic decrease in forest and grassland due to urbanisation, agricultural expansion and other anthropogenic activities.
3 illus, 2 tables, 29 ref
UTAMI W, SALIM M N
001223 UTAMI W, SALIM M N (National Land Institute, Yogyakarta, Indonesia) : Local wisdom as a peatland management strategy of land fire mitigation in meranti regency, Indonesia. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 127-37.
Damage to peatlands in Riau Province was one of the main cause of great fires in 2014–2015. Top-down peatland management without involving the local community was considered as one of the factors exacerbating the fires. This research aims to explain how local wisdom and land management patterns that changed from state management to community-based management with Social Forestry scheme applies as an effort to reduce peatland fires in Tebing Tinggi Timur District, Meranti Regency. This study used qualitative method. The data were collected by interview and field observation. The results of the study show that the local wisdom of the community in managing peatlands by building tebat (canal blockings) is able to keep wet the peat throughout the year so that the land is protected from threats of fire. The choice of plants (sago, rubber and areca nut) that has been carried out for generations has proven to be able to preserve the land and support the community’s economy. Social Forestry (Village Forest) scheme becomes the community basis to legally manage and utilize the peatland/forest and provide protection for the community’s rights to access and utilize the land. The results also show that the community’s ability to adapt to nature and fires makes the community able to live in harmony with disaster.
4 illus, 58 ref
DEVI K S
001221 DEVI K S (Political Science Dep, St Thomas Coll, Pala, Kerala) : The cosmic crisp benefits of mgnregs on ecological conservation: A study with special reference to Kottayam District in Kerala, India. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 121-3.
MGNREGS is one of the biggest safety nets in India for employment generation and environmental protection. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme came into force in the year 2006 in the 200 districts of the country. Later, it is extended to all the districts in India by 2008. The Programme provides employment opportunities by ensuring environmental protection for sustainable development. The present study highlights the role of MGNREGS in environmental protection and examines the environmental implications of the act. It highlights the initiatives adopted by PRIs for environmental protection in the study area.
2 tables, 6 ref
GUPTA N, BHARGAV K S, KUMARI S, DIXIT A K
001220 GUPTA N, BHARGAV K S, KUMARI S, DIXIT A K (R.V.S.K.V.V. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dewas- 455 001, Madhya Pradesh) : Impact assessment of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield and economics of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Cv. G-282 through front line demonstration. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 116-20.
A field trial on Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) in garlic were conducted with farmers participation in Dewas district of Madhya Pradesh for four consecutive years from 2015-16 to 2018-19 to assess the impact of INM on the performance of garlic crop. Demonstration on INM were conducted by applying FYM (15 t/ ha) + NPKS (75:40:40:40Kg/ha) + Zinc (5 Kg/ha) + Azospirillum and PSB each @ 5 Kg/ha. The study revealed that application of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers, organic and bio-fertilizers enhanced the growth, yield and yield attributing characters as well as economic performance of garlic. The plant height, number of leaves per plant, neck thickness, bulb diameter and bulb weight was found highest in demonstration plots as compared to farmers practice. The average bulb yield recorded in demonstration plots was 106.74 q/ha which was 16.86% more than farmers practice (91.94 q/ha). An average of Rs. 1,30,618 per hectare net profit was recorded under demonstration plots while it was Rs. 1,04,977 per hectare under farmers practice. The benefit cost ratio was highest in demonstrations (2.74) as compared to farmer’s practice (2.44).
4 tables, 14 ref
NEEMA A S, PRUSTY B A K, GAJERA N B, KURVE P N
001219 NEEMA A S, PRUSTY B A K, GAJERA N B, KURVE P N (Biodiversity Dep, Mumbai Univ, Thane- 400 601, Maharashtra) : Nesting site studies of White-bellied Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster Gmelin, 1788) along Konkan Coast, Dist. Ratnagiri, M. S., India. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 108-15.
Nesting behaviour of White-bellied Sea Eagle has been meagerly studied though; the raptor is widely distributed along the coast of Maharashtra. Present study was carried out by conducting surveys for locating their nesting sites along coast of Ratnagiri district and 12 nests of White-bellied Sea Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster at different sites along Velas to Dabhol were studied. Various ecological parameters such as nesting tree species, nesting tree height, nesting tree GBH, nest height, geo-coordinates, distance from coast, disturbance level were considered. WBSE was found to be most abundantly nesting (N =12) on Casuarina equisetifolia tree which, accounts to 83% of the total nesting trees and only 02 nests, just 17% of the total nesting trees studied, were on Sterculia foetida. In most cases, it was observed that WBSEs prefer nest trees with larger GBH as compared to same tree species of smaller girth. Location of nest from the supratidal mark was measured to study nesting preference about distance from the sea and we found that, the nearest nest was 30 m away from the coast and the farthest one was at a distance of around 900 m. A positive correlation (Pearson’s Correlation test, r = 0.865, P < 0.05) between the nest height and the nest tree indicates the characteristic nest building of WBSE on the top most canopy of the nesting tree. Highest and lowest nest height recorded was 34 m and 18 m from ground, respectively. At each study site, the level of threat was noted with respect to anthropogenic disturbances and those caused by other species. The land ownership of the nesting sites was noted as it would be a crucial parameter for preparing conservation guidelines.
12 illus, 2 tables, 15 ref
RANGANATH V G
001217 RANGANATH V G (Christ (Deemed to be Univ), Bangalore, Karnataka) : Environmental concerns with special reference to climate change and land aspect. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 94-100.
Land provides the principal basis for human livelihoods and well-being including the supply of food, freshwater and multiple other ecosystem services, as well as biodiversity. Climate and climate change are strong drivers of biotic systems. The distribution and survival of many species being moderated by climate. UN High Commissioner for Refugees Antonio Guterres has staunchly and consistently advocated for States to take the issue of climate change seriously and expressed his view that this is a mega-trend that will compound others, such as food and water insecurity and competition over resources. In Samaj Parivartana Samudaya v State of Karnataka, (2013) 8 SCC 154., the Apex Court of India has held that the satellite imageries placed before the Court with regard to environmental damage and destruction has shocked the judicial conscience. There is now widespread scientific consensus that climate change is happening and that the warming of the earth’s atmosphere is mainly attributable to human activity. In this Research Paper, the Author deliberates on various issues effecting environmental concerns with particular to global climate and various reasons that led to climate change.
KUMAR A, VEERABHADRAPPA S M
001215 KUMAR A, VEERABHADRAPPA S M (Amity Univ, Noida, Uttar Pradesh) : Examining the need and necessity of water management in Greater Noida City, India. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 79-87.
Greater Noida, an industrial area is located at the intersection of the western and eastern dedicated freight corridors and is also the gateway to the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC). It lies within the National Capital Region of India’s capital Delhi and is adjacent to Noida, one of the largest industrial townships in Asia. Having population of more than 1,00,000 in total as per the census 2011. Greater Noida is a rapidly developing city and moving fast towards becoming the developed city and in the process, obviously, exploitation of natural resources are required to develop an industrial corridor for its infrastructure development. Over exploitation of resources simultaneously creates and increases the scarcity leading to disastrous effects. As over exploitation of ground water leads to lowering the water table and results in effecting the quality of ground water. With more people living in Greater Noida city than ever before and many new construction work is going on, the Greater Noida city draws more water from ground water sources and also the illegal extraction of ground water for construction leads to decrease in water table level. The hardness of water is one of the issues and is a concern for residents of several sectors across Greater Noida for a long time now. The Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) level in water is found to be more than 500 ppm. However, the normal TDS in water should be 500, according to the health department. The TDS levels in water vary across all sectors in Greater Noida. The TDS level in sector alpha is 700 and about 800 in sector omega, as the TDS levels are high, quantity of undesirable minerals like calcium and magnesium are also high. This leads to several issues like corrosion of electric appliances, water pipes and taps. Today the city is facing the biggest problem that is scarcity of drinking water as the level of water is continually depleting. We need well-planned strategies at locations where heavy rainfall occurs, an extra effort could be madein order to save water for future use. Thousands of gallons of water can be saved if we keep our drainage system proper. The groundwater level, according to the CGWB, has surpassed the “critical level” and is now “overexploited”, which means the city could face a serious water shortage in the years to come unless its ground water is adequately recharged. The ground water level in the district is falling alarmingly by a meter every year, says a recently released report by the Ministry of Water Resources, a consequence of the city’s breakneck pace of urbanization that now threatens to derail it. With more people living in city than ever before and many new construction work is going on, currently, the Greater Noida city draws more water from groundwater. To safeguard its water, authority has planned many ways to conserve water naturally; still the region is in a state of “water stress”: it uses more than 40 percent of the water available to it.
2 illus, 2 tables, 21 ref
PATIL V V, TORADMAL A B
001214 PATIL V V, TORADMAL A B (Geography Dep, Shri Shahu Mandir Mahavidyalaya, Pune, Maharashtra) : Assessment of jalyukt shivar abhiyan water conservation scheme in Karjat Tehsil of Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra-using GIS technique. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 71-8.
The Maharashtra Government in India has launched a water conservation scheme entitled ‘Jalyukt Shivar Yojana.’ Jalyukt Shivar (JYS) Campaign is a flagship programme of State Government. The aims of this scheme is to bring water empowerment to the drought-affected villages to make Maharashtra Drought Free by the year 2019. The target of this programme to make 5000 villages free of water scarcity every year. The main objective of this research is assessing the village wise wok of water conservation methods. The study was conducted for entire Karjat tehsil. Total sixteen water conservation strategy implemented in all villages of Karjat Tehsil. Such as Compartment bunding, Nala extension, well recharge, sediment extraction, farm pond, drip and sprinkler irrigation, hydrofracturing, continuous contour trench, plantation, Kolhapur type weir, gabion structure, cement nala dam, loose boulder structure, water stock making pond and percolation tank. The geographical information system platform used for creating village wise each layers of conservation methods. This work shows through the choropleth map. Result shows from these case studies different water conservation schemes are implemented in this tehsil which are helpful for farmers and society. The storage capacity of nalas, dams are increase as well as groundwater level also increased.
2 illus, 8 ref
DUVVI P K L, SENTHIL KUMAAR J S
001213 DUVVI P K L, SENTHIL KUMAAR J S (Madanapalle Institute of Technology & Science, Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh) : Economic feasibility analysis of biogas plant integrated with municipal waste management system. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 62-70.
Handling and avoiding food waste are one of the major issues in many developing countries and India is no exception. Around 67 million Tons of food is wasted in India every year. Most of this food waste ends up in landfills or composting facilities. Municipal solid food waste in landfills release methane into the atmosphere and this methane acts as a potent greenhouse gas with an impact on global warming roughly 20 times stronger than carbon dioxide. Along with the soil contamination due to landfills and the methane gas released into the atmosphere, usage of fossil fuels for power generation and transportation releases Tons of CO2 into the atmosphere. Average utility emission per kWh of energy generation is 0.6 Kg of carbon dioxide and 3 Kg of CO2 is released into the atmosphere for every litre of gasoline combusted. Conversion of waste food into biogas is the best alternative and rationale for the bureaucracies to adopt this process. In this report, we calculated the economic feasibility of running a biogas plant in the town of Madanapalle, located in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Madanapalle produces 25000 tons per year of biodegradable food waste. The capital budgeting methods used to determine if it makes sense to invest funds in the Biogas plant project are the Net Present Value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and Pay-off period. The produced biogas is either used for generation of electricity or converted into CNG. NPV calculations are provided for an optimum use of CNG conversion percentage for earning profits. The effect of Feed-in-tariff, tipping fee and CNG conversion percentage on NPV is reported
5 illus, 8 tables, 26 ref
NIRMALA D, CAHYANTO D, VALEN F S, MAULIDA N
001212 NIRMALA D, CAHYANTO D, VALEN F S, MAULIDA N (Marine Dep, Airlangga Univ, Surabaya- 60115, Indonesia) : Effect of temperature on the activity of crude protease enzymes of Bacillus pumilus from anchovy isolates (Stolephorus sp.). Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 58-61.
Proteolytic bacteria that are potential to produce protease enzymes are widely used in food processing which can be isolated from various parts of fish and from various processes, which can be isolated from fish entrails, fresh fish and processed fish such as anchovy, and fish canning process waste. The study of proteolytic bacteria in anchovy has great biotechnology potential to be investigated because bacteria that can grow in anchovy are bacteria that can live in extreme environments. Given the great potential of the Bacillus pumilus bacteria, research can be carried out on enzyme activity from bacteria that grow in the isolation of anchovy. The purpose of this study was to obtain Bacillus pumilus protease enzyme activity from anchovy isolates which included temperature. The study used the experimental method, which is called Complete Random Design (CRD) with different temperature treatments including Bacillus pumilus 20 oC, 30 oC, 40 oC, and 50 oC. Based on the results of the study, it was found that the crude extract of the protease enzyme anchovy isolate in Bacillus pumilus was 50 oC at 1.2589u/mL. The results of the analysis show that the same temperature gives an influence between Bacillus pumilus on enzyme activity carried out to determine the optimum condition of the enzyme in degrading the substrate.
2 illus, 1 table, 18 ref
CHAUDHURY S K, SARKAR S
001208 CHAUDHURY S K, SARKAR S (Business Administration Dep, Berhampur Univ, Odisha) : Health conditions of women rubber tappers in Tripura: A case study. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 31-4.
This paper attempts to highlight the socio economic conditions and occupational health risks of women rubber tappers in study area. The results indicate that their nature work poses severe health threat to them, since they are handling latex and collecting time is in night or early morning. Many tappers handling latex without any safety measures and materials. Illness among the tappers are more who are not using safety measures. Due to their practice of unhygienic handling of latex they are vulnerable to many health risks. Thus the paper suggested that their should be proper awareness and guideline for using the safety measures and materials.
7 tables, 5 ref
MAYASARI D, KANTO S, SITIKHOLIFAH, PRASETYO B D
001207 MAYASARI D, KANTO S, SITIKHOLIFAH, PRASETYO B D (Brawijaya Malang Univ, Indonesia) : Local wisdom as social capital in developing a sade tourism village central lombok, Indonesia. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 25-30.
Tourism development by utilizing the potential of local wisdom generally takes into account all abilities or natural, social, cultural and natural resources in society, because it is related to local potential, so many things can be explored and appointed as tourist attractions, such as natural wealth, arts and various things. handicraft products produced by the community. In the implementation of tourism, especially in areas that are used as tourist villages, must pay attention to several things such as religious norms and cultural values, local wisdom, providing benefits by empowering the community for the welfare of the community by complying with the tourism code of ethics. Therefore, this study focuses on local wisdom of the Sade community which is the social capital for the development of a tourist village. This research uses qualitative research that was conducted in Sade Hamlet, Rembitan Village, Pujut District, Central Lombok Regency. In this case, the researcher tries to find local wisdom, and there are several traditions, namely nyerabi, roahkelemaq, which is done to mop floors using cow dung, usually, this eel activity is carried out in the morning after dawn, and is usually also done by every family member. if going to make an event. It is hoped that with local wisdom that is still thick in the Sade community, it can be used as social capital in the development of a tourism village to bring about social change in the community Sade to increase community income through tourism by utilizing social capital and social capital can be used as a means of community empowerment because this can provide a new perspective on togetherness, tolerance, and participation.
1 table, 13 ref
HASAN M A, ALI H A, MAHAL J D
001206 HASAN M A, ALI H A, MAHAL J D (Tikrit Univ, Iraq) : Physiological changes and phytoremediation ability of Moringa oleifera growing in polluted soil with Zn and Co heavy metals. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 16-24.
Extensive environment pollution by explosives and heavy metals caused bymanufacturing, disposal and testing of munitions becomes an issue of increasing concern. Accordingly, this study attempted to examine the effect of phytoremediation of Moringa oleifera on soil polluted with heavy metals. It was performedat College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, from Autumn 2018 to Summer 2019. One type of soil was used, taken from Al-Mahzam city in Salah Al-Din governorate. It concluded that Moringa oleifera showed a great tolerance to the heavy metals (Zn and Co) found in soil and had a good phytoremediation effect. The physiological parameters were represented by (N, P, K, C, protein) and Chlorophyll A+B to obtain better results.
18 tables, 26 ref
SANDY A, SRIATI, AZHAR, SISWANTO A
001205 SANDY A, SRIATI, AZHAR, SISWANTO A (Sriwijaya Univ, Palembang- 30139, Indonesia) : Analysis of the Palembang’s government mutual cooperation program implementation for flood disaster mitigation. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 8-15.
Flood is an annual issue in Palembang and has an impact on the condition of society both socially, environmentally and economically. Related to this, in 2015 the Palembang’s Government decided to launch the Mutual cooperation program as an effort to reduce flood risk. Mutual cooperation was carried out every Sunday morning by cleaning streams and drainage channels. The success of the program was largely determined by the extent to which the program planning was able to involve community participation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze community participation in the mutual cooperation program launched by the Palembang’s Government and evaluate the problems in implementing the mutual cooperation Program. The results showed that community participation in the mutual cooperation program was considered quite active, but in the program implementation there were still aspects that needed to be reviewed, such as socialization regarding the mechanism for implementing mutual cooperation activities, involvement of community organizations, and supporting facilities from the government during the activity.
6 illus, 36 ref
MILASHECHKINA E A, GERNET I N, KUNITSINA E A, GERNET M S, MILASHECHKIN V S, GERNET D M, POTAPOV D A, POGORELOVA O V
001204 MILASHECHKINA E A, GERNET I N, KUNITSINA E A, GERNET M S, MILASHECHKIN V S, GERNET D M, POTAPOV D A, POGORELOVA O V (Physical Education and Sports Dep, Friendship Univ of Russia, Moscow, Russia) : Characteristics of functioning of respiratory and cardiovascular systems in teenagers residing in the conditions of chemical pollution of the environment. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S1, 1-7.
The state of the present environment is characterized by a significant increase of the anthropogenic impact. More and more territories on the planet, including Russia, have the influence of chemical pollution. The child’s body is especially sensitive to the effects of chemical pollution of the environment. Respiratory and cardiovascular systems are leading adaptive body systems. Therefore, today there is a question about degree of exposure to chemical pollutants on bodies of adolescents. Purpose of the study is to evaluate the functioning of cardiovascular and respiratory systems of adolescents exposed to chemical pollution of the environment. The study presents data of the anthropogenic effects impact on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of the adolescents‘ bodies (15-17 years of age), living in conditions of environment’s chemical pollution (n = 222: 102 boys and 120 girls). As a control group, the study involved adolescents living in environmentally friendly conditions (n = 180: 90 boys and 90 girls). To assess the activity of the cardiovascular (CVS) and respiratory systems (RS), we used indicators of external respiration, blood pressure and the study of the hart’s functional intervals. A persistent effect of chemical pollutants on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of adolescent organism was established as a result of data obtained. More significant changes were found in boys as compared to the girls. Considering the age-related dynamics of changes, we can conclude that maximum abnormalities occur at the peak of puberty in both – boys and girls (14, 16 and 13, 14 years, respectively), which can have negatively affect the further developmental.
1 illus, 4 tables, 29 ref
GIANG P Q
001203 GIANG P Q (Ha Long Univ, Vietnam) : Evidence of global warming and implication for land and water management for agricultural development: A case study in Vietnam. Eco Env Cons 2021, 27-S2, 415-26.
This study was conducted to investigate the existence of global warming at a local scale with a case study of Nghe An, the largest province in Vietnam, and to draw implications for land and water resources management for agricultural development. An ensemble of Global Climate Models simulation with MAGICC/SCENGEN model and a statistical downscaling method were employed for temperature change prediction. The study found that during 40 years from 1971-2010, annual temperature rose by approximately 0.8 oC, meaning that it has risen 0.2 oC per decade. The province is also predicted to face with a severe warming climate in the future, which could warm as much as 3.9 oC by the end of this century. A warmer climate could lead to a number of issues regarding the variability of land and water resources in the province including the negative change of water cycle; the increase in the frequency and intensity of floods and droughts which could destruct the current land and water systems; degradation of land due to soil erosion which causes the loss of fertile soil; water pollution and water quality deterioration due to the transportation of heavy metals, pollutants, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers during heavier rains, etc. It is recommended that countermeasures should be planned in the framework of watershed management, which is the integrated use and management of land, vegetation and water resources while enhancing livelihoods and maintaining ecosystem services in the province.
12 illus, 27 ref