Sinha N;Singh G;Srivastava S;Singh P
000083 Sinha N;Singh G;Srivastava S;Singh P (Toxicology Div, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Email: email@example.com) : Anti-teratogens. Toxic int 2007, 14(2), 93-102.
To discover the means of protection of the unborn child from environment in insult is a challange to the teratologists. Although protecting the child from all the birth defects is a difficult preposition at this stage, yet things are becoming more attainable with the advancement of science and technology. Few compounds, which include natural as well as synthetic products, have been reported to have protective effects against some teratogens. Recently, methods have been developed for screening these compounds for the antiteratogenic property by using in vivo or in vitro testing system. Work reported so far on this subject is very scanty, but it is appreciable for providing a new lead in this direction. This review attempts to focus on various reports, published on this topic and also discusses them for the possibilities of further studies in this direction.
1 table, 46 ref
Shiv Kumar;Raghbendra Pratap;Varma M C
000082 Shiv Kumar;Raghbendra Pratap;Varma M C (Zoology Dep Univ, T.M. Bhagalpur Univ, Bhagalpur) : Ground water contamination with special reference to distillery effluents. Proc Zool Soc India 2007, 6(2), 65-71.
Ground water quality of Jagdishpur block, Dist. Banka (Bihar, India) was evaluated to assess the impact of distillery unit. Several parameters viz. Temp, pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, BOD, COD, Total hardness, Chloride, Sodium, Potasium, Calcium, Magnesium, Nitrate and Phosphate were taken into account. It was found that BOD, COD etc. were substantially high and not fit for human consumption. The distillery unit however under takes a treatment process before the discharge of effluent. But the study reveals that the contaminants present in the ground water have not properly ameliorated.
1 illus, 1 table, 14 ref
Sharma S;Sharma R C;Shashi Kant
000081 Sharma S;Sharma R C;Shashi Kant (Environmental Sciences Dep, Jammu Univ, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir-180 006, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Domestic fuel consumption in Birhun watershed of Udhampur, J&K. Int J Envir Dev 2007, 4(2), 195-215.
The study was conducted in Birhun watershed of Udhampur district of J&K. The watershed was divided in to three zones according to distance of Villages from the forests. Zone I and Zone II which represent urban and peri-urban set up have better socio economic status. The fuel wood consumption was found in all the zones but Zone III has the highest proportion of fuel wood in the total house hold energy consumption. The use of commercial energy in the form of LPG is only found in Zone I having 56 percent share in total fuel consumption, followed by Zone II with around 23 percent share. The use of other fuels like kerosene, crop residue, Cow dung cakes is not so popular. The total fuel wood consumption for the study area and availability from non forest sources was estimated to the tune of 17954.86 tonnes per annum and 2441.18 tonnes showing a deficit of 15513.68 tonnes. This deficit in the fuel wood availability is met by extraction of wood from the forests and Rakhs. The degradation of the forests is due to over exploitation of forests for fuel wood, fodder, timber, which is a matter of concern in the study area.
9 tables, 53 ref
Sharma A;Tiwari D R
000080 Sharma A;Tiwari D R (Chemistry Dep, Government M.V.M., Bhopal) : Assessment of surface water quality in Mandideep industrial area, Bhopal (India). Oriental J Chem 2007, 23(2), 759-62.
Surface water quality studies in Mandideep Industrial Area was carried out during the period September 1999 to November 1999. Water samples were collected and analysed on a number of sites. The parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Alkalinity, Total hardness. Total dissolved solids, Chloride and fluorides were analysed as per standard methods APHA, 1995. Results were discussed with respect to possible impact on Human Health.
3 tables, 9 ref
Shanmugavalli R;Madhav Akrishnan S;Kadirvelu K;Rasappan K;Mohanraj R;Pattabhi S
000079 Shanmugavalli R;Madhav Akrishnan S;Kadirvelu K;Rasappan K;Mohanraj R;Pattabhi S (Environmental Science Dep, PSG College of Arts@Science, Coimbatore-641 014, Email: email@example.com) : Adsorption studies on removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using silk cotton hull carbon. J Ind Pollut Control 2007, 23(1), 65-72.
Activated carbon prepared from silk cotton hull carbon (SCHC) was used to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions by adsorption technique under varying conditions of agitation time, metal ion concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH. Adsorption followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption capacity was found to be effective with the particle size of 125-250 mm at room temperature (30±2°C) and an initial pH of 3±0.2.
7 illus, 2 tables, 8 ref
Shah M C;Shilpkar P G;Acharya P B
000078 Shah M C;Shilpkar P G;Acharya P B (Chemistry Dep, Gujarat Vidyapith, SADRA (Dist-Gandhinagar), Gujarat-382 320, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Ground water quality of Gandhinagar Taluka, Gujarat, India. E J Chem 2008, 5(3), 435-46.
Present communication deals with study of physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (BC), total dissolved solids (IDS), total alkalinity (TA), calcium hardness (CaH), magnesium hardness (MgH), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cn, fluoride (F), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sulphate (SO2-4) of water samples of bore wells of forty villages of Gandhinagar taluka of Gujarat state, India. The experimental values of water samples were compared with standard values given by World Health Organization (WHO) and United State Salinity Laboratory for drinking and irrigation purposes respectively. Water Quality Index (WQD was also calculated to know the over all quality of water samples. The statistical analysis like mean, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variance (% CV), analysis of variance (ANOV A), t-test, coefficient of correlation (r) and regression analysis of obtained data were carried out, The results show that the quality of water is poor and quite good for drinking and irrigation purposes respectively. The variance was found significant at 1% level of significance in case of sodium and potassium content and at 5% in case of total alkalinity and dissolved oxygen among the four regions (North, South, East and West) of Gandhinagar taluka. The linear relation also established for each pair of water quality parameters of studied water samples.
10 tables, 15 ref
Ramesh T;Nehru Kumar V
000077 Ramesh T;Nehru Kumar V (Civil Engineering Dep, Annamalai Univ, Annamalainagar-608 002) : Performance evaluation of fixed bed fixed film anaerobic reactor for treating dairy effluent. J Ind Pollut Control 2007, 23(1), 11-14.
In recent times, the Dairy industries have started incorporating sophisticated processing equipments with CIP cleaning systems and PLC based process automation systems. As a result, the conventional water use pattern of 3:1 is largely reduced to almost less than one against one liter of milk processing. Also, the effluent characteristics were changed with COD restricted to 4000-5000 mg/L, BOD at 2500-3500 mg/L and pH from 5.5 -8.5. The biodegradability of Dairy effluent is 0.625 to 0.70. Any anaerobic treatment at the first stage of the effluent treatment will greatly reduce the organic load over the subsequent aerobic reactor and ultimately enhance the overall waste removal efficiency and also bring down the cost of treatment. The Fixed Bed Fixed Film anaerobic reactor is evaluated with a laboratory model (42.70 L) for the treatment of Dairy effluent. The experiment was run for three different operating conditions viz., Hydraulic Loading Rates, m3/m2 day (0.016, 0.011, 0.008, 0.005, 0.003), Organic Loading Rates, Kg COD/m2.day (0.013, 0.022, 0.031, 0.035, 0.040) and HRT, hrs (7.30, 10.95, 14.60, 21.90, 43.80). The optimum COD removal was observed for 80.88% and the biogas conversion was 0.318 m3 per Kg COD removed.
5 illus, 1 table, 6 ref
Rajarajasri Pramila Deve I;Gowari V S
000076 Rajarajasri Pramila Deve I;Gowari V S (NO, Institute for Ocean Management, Anna Univ, Chennai-600 025, Email: email@example.com) : Biological treatment of aquaculture discharge waters by seaweeds. J Ind Pollut Control 2007, 23(1), 135-40.
Treatment with seaweeds confirmed that nutrients from the aquaculture farm discharges could be converted in to seaweed biomass in a laboratory scale treatment experiment Enteromorpha flexuosa removed 87.2% of nitrite 87.2 % of nitrate, 82.5% of ammonia and 84.1% of phosphate and Gracilaria verrucosa removed 94.5% of nitrite 91.4% of nitrate, 99.3%> of ammonia and 100% of phosphate from the discharge waters of aquaculture farm in a period of 20 days. Concentration of dissolved oxygen level increased from 4.2 to 5.1 mg/L with E. flexuosa and from 3.3 to 5.1 mg/L in with G. verrucosa. The biomass of seaweed has increased from 20 to 27.1g in the case of E. flexuosa and from 20 to 28.1g in the case of G. verrucosa. With increasing shrimp farming activities considerable quantity of discharge waters, will be generated and that may lead to some negative impacts on coastal and land environment. Biological treatment system is the best of all the treatment systems for a tropical country like India because of low cost and simple operations.
2 illus, 2 tables, 16 ref
Rajan M R;Manoj K S
000075 Rajan M R;Manoj K S (Biology Dep, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed Univ, Gandhigram-624 302) : Survey of vegetation in and around tannery polluted soil and isolation of bio-indicators for phytoremediation. J Ind Pollut Control 2007, 23(1), 31-6.
The study deals with the survey of vegetation in and around Tannery polluted soil and isolation of bioindicators for phytoremediation. Few species of plants such as Chenopodium martima and Heliotropium cumssavicum exhibit comparatively higher growth than other species in tannery affected soil. Chemical analysis shows that the species have high chloride content. Comparative study on decontamination capacity shows that Chenopodium martima has higher ability to remove chlorides from the soil than Heliotropium curassavicum.
8 tables, 6 ref
Patil D B;Rewatkar S B;Thakur G J
000074 Patil D B;Rewatkar S B;Thakur G J (Chemistry Dep, Institute of Science, Nagpur-440 001) : Steady state redox potential of iodine/iodide system for determination of arsenic in synthetically polluted water. J Ind Pollut Control 2007, 23(1), 151-6.
An electrochemical method was devised to measure very low concentration of arsenic in systhetically polluted water. Steady state redox potential of iodine/iodide system was utilized to measure low concentration of arsenic. The method is highly precise, accurate and reproducible. It can measure concentration of arsenic in the range of 0.03 mg to 0.11 mg.
2 illus, 3 tables, 17 ref
Pathak J;Srivastava R K
000073 Pathak J;Srivastava R K (Environmental Sciences Dep, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, G.B. Pant Univ of Agricultur, Pantnagar-263 145) : Determination of inoculum dose for methane production from food industry effluent. J Ind Pollut Control 2007, 23(1), 49-54.
This study investigates to find out optimum inoculum percentage for anaerobic treatment of Food industry wastewater in ambient environmental conditions. The effluent of Britannia food industry was selected for this study. Source of inoculum was the digested slurry from the active cow dung biogas plant. The inoculum concentrations were varied from 10-40% in effluent. It was found that 30% inoculum concentration was most suitable for anaerobic treatment of this effluent. Results reveals that biogas production was higher with 30% inoculum concentration as compared to 10,20 and 40% inoculum concentration in ambient environmental conditions.
5 illus, 8 ref