KARLI G, TEJA R
003296 KARLI G, TEJA R (Biotechnology Dep, Govt. Degree Coll, Kukatpally, Hyderabad) : Immunoinformatics II: Computational analysis of hypothetical protein as apotential diagnostic marker for bovine trichomonosis. Bioinfolet 2021, 18 (2), 279 - 82.
Bovine trichomonosis is venereal sickness of cattle caused by Tritrichomonas foetus. In farm animals, the parasite infects urogenital tract and cause symptoms which are similar to those due to the infection of Trichomonas vaginalis in humans. In cats, the parasite colonizes gastrointestinal tract and results into prolonged watery diarrhea which can result in abandonment or euthanasia. However, lack of rapid kits for identification of Trichomonas foetus infection is not yet available. For this purpose, transcriptomics and proteomics based information of Trichomonas vaginalis was analyzed during present investigation, to obtain hypothetical proteins. TMMHM method revealed them as transmembrane and membrane related proteins respectively. These proteins were analyzed using epitope prediction and evaluation equipment. The hypothetical proteins indicated that they can be exploited as diagnostics.
3 illus, 8 ref
SHUBANGINI T, RAJESHWARI P, GEETHANJALI K K
003295 SHUBANGINI T, RAJESHWARI P, GEETHANJALI K K (Biotechnology Dep, Govt. Degree Coll, Hyderabad) : Immunoinformatics I: Computational analysis of gp63-like protein as a potential diagnostic markers for bovine trichomonosis. Bioinfolet 2021, 18 (2), 275 - 8.
Bovine Trichomonosis is venereal disease of cattle in India caused by the infection of Trichomonas foetus. However, simple, inexpensive rapid kits have not yet developed for the identification of the infection by the pathogen. Transcriptomics and proteomics based data of the casual agent, as well as, genomics-based approach to screen Trichomonas vaginalis, a closely related human parasite were analyzed to identify GP-63 proteins. TMMHM tool revealed them to be as transmembrane protein and as membrane associated protein respectively. These proteins were analyzed using Epitope Prediction and Analysis Tools in Immune Epitope Database Analysis Resource. GP-63 proteins contain several large continuous epitopes which suggest that they can be exploited for developing diagnostics. Such computational predictions may help the researchers towards development of diagnostics and therapeutics.
3 illus, 10 ref
SINGH P, NATH R
003233 SINGH P, NATH R (Computer Science & Engineering Dep, CSJM Univ, Kanpur, UP) : Rabin-karp algorithm based microsatellite searching in whole-genome. Bioinfolet 2021, 18 (1 A), 25 - 31.
Microsatellites (Simple Sequence Repeat) are abundant throughout genome sequences. The basic building block of a microsatellite is a short sequence motif (sequence pattern of 1-6 base-pairs in DNA) repeated in tandem. They are known for development of molecular markers, which play an important role in genetic diversity. In molecular biology, their identification and analysis play an important role in genomic studies. During present investigation, a formula-derived motif database was developed containing almost all possible motif combinations for user-desired lengths. An efficient microsatellite search program, based on the Rabin-Karp string matching algorithm, was also developed which can detect different microsatellite motifs' frequency, as per the user's parameters.
6 illus, 2 tables, 11 ref
BHARDWAJ N, SHARMA P, KUMAR V
003203 BHARDWAJ N, SHARMA P, KUMAR V (Biotechnology Dep, Lovely Professional Univ, Phagwara - 144 411, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Anti-corrosive behaviour of saccharum officinarum extract in 15% HCl for stainless steel-410 surface. Asian J Chem 2021, 33 (6), 1389 - 95.
The objective of this study is to experimentally evaluate the inhibition properties of Saccharum officinarum extract in a 15% hydrochloric acidic media for stainless steel (SS-410). The gravimetric, UV spectroscopy, FTIR and surface morphological studies carried out using SEM, AFM and XRD revealed that the S. officinarum extract protected the SS 410 steel in 15% hydrochloric acidic medium. Gravimetric analysis revealed maximum 95.92 % inhibition efficiency at 4 g/L inhibitor concentration. The computational studies (quantum chemical calculations) were further utilized to understand the concept of chelation mechanism. The surface film formation and other 3D features of S. officinarum extract film over SS-410 surface was confirmed using AFM studies. Adsorption of S. officinarum extract over SS-410 surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It is clear from the theoretical and computational studies that the S. officinarum extract acted as mixed type inhibitor by adsorption of hybrid organic-inorganic inhibitor ingredients on SS-410. Thus, S. officinarum extract can develop an efficient protective layer on SS-410 that has various industrial applications.
9 illus, 4 tables, 33 ref
PRABHU V, ARUNKUMAR K, MONIKA B, LATHA V, SIBI G
003108 PRABHU V, ARUNKUMAR K, MONIKA B, LATHA V, SIBI G (Biotechnology Dep, Indian Academy Degree Coll, Bengaluru - 560 043, Email: email@example.com) : Bioactive phytochemical compounds of physalis minima L. and its anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities. Asian J Chem 2021, 33 (4), 741 - 6.
Physalis minima Linn. was investigated for its antioxidant and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activities. The methanolic extract of the whole plant was evaluated for radical scavenging and in vitro hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine iodide. Inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the extract exhibited IC50 values of 78.6, 46.2, 76.7 and 296 µg/mL under 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), hydroxyl radical scavenging and acetylcholine esterase inhibition assays. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 11 compounds of which most of the compounds were reported with biological activities. The study suggests further investigations of P. minima for isolation, purification and characterization of valuable bioactive compounds related to their radical scavenging activity and for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.
4 illus, 1 table, 48 ref
AHALYA N, DHAMODHAR P, VAISHNAVI A D
003075 AHALYA N, DHAMODHAR P, VAISHNAVI A D (Biotechnology Dep, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore - 560 054, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Green synthesis, characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles and their incorporation into glass ionomer cement for inhibition of streptococcus mutans. Asian J Chem 2021, 33 (3), 515 - 20.
In present study, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesised using Syzygium aromaticum and characterized using UV visible spectroscopy, SEM, XRD and FTIR techniques. The characteristic hexagonal structure of the ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed through XRD analysis. The UV-Visible spectrum showed a strong absorbance at 366 nm confirming the presence of ZnO and the peak at 496 cm-1 in FTIR indicated the Zn-O stretch bond. Average size of the zinc oxide nanoparticles obtained from SEM analysis was found to be 86 nm. The zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited better antibacterial activity than clove extract, when tested against clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans. The nanoparticles incorporated into the dental restorative material, glass ionomer cement (GIC) were tested against S. mutans and exhibited better antibacterial activity than clove extract. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) did not exhibit antibacterial activity alone, but the incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into GIC significantly improved antibacterial activity. Hence, ZnO embedded GIC is a promising material in restorative dentistry for preventing the recurrence of dental caries.
6 illus, 29 ref
SAITHONG P, VANICHSRIRATANA W, MORAKUL S
000788 SAITHONG P, VANICHSRIRATANA W, MORAKUL S (Biotechnology Dep, Kasetsart Univ, Bangkok- 10900, Thailand, Email: email@example.com) : Screening of acetate-tolerant yeast and its effect on controlling bacterial contamination during ethanol production from sugarcane molasses. Sugar Tech 2021, 23(2), 382–94.
Growth and ethanol fermentation ability of the acetate-tolerant yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae KU 002-3 strain were investigated in acetate-addition medium. Under simulated industrial conditions, acetate did not affect on sugar consumption and ethanol production of KU 002-3. Moreover, KU 002-3 strain demonstrated a higher capability for ethanol production than other commercial strains. Co-fermentation was conducted with Lactobacillus fermentum IFRPD 2021, the major contaminating bacteria, during the ethanol production at 0.8 % (v/v) acetate (130 mM of the undissociated form of acetate). Under these conditions, growth of L. fermentum IFRPD 2021 was inhibited but the growth and ethanol production ability of S. cerevisiae KU 002-3 strain were not significantly affected. Data indicated the possibility of producing ethanol under high acetate accumulation and reducing Lactobacillus sp. in molasses medium or acetate-containing condition. Producing ethanol under high acetate accumulation and lower the contamination of Lactobacillus sp. in a molasses medium can be useful at industrial scale to produce ethanol with S. cerevisiae KU 002-3 under non-sterilized conditions.
5 illus, 2 tables, 49 ref
GAOPANDE P S, JERINE P S, THIAGARAJAN P, SABINA E P
000630 GAOPANDE P S, JERINE P S, THIAGARAJAN P, SABINA E P (VIT, Vellore- 632 014, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Efficacy of herbal drugs in treatment of galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 239-46.
Liver plays an important role in drug metabolism. Presence of any toxic compound in drug or formation of toxic metabolites during hepatic metabolism of drug may cause hepatotoxicity. Galactosamine is the experimental drug which causes hepatotoxicity by two basic mechanisms i.e. inflammation and peroxidation. Natural compounds which are derived from trees or herbs have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties which are efficient to prevent or cure the drug- induced hepatotoxicity. These herbal compounds are easily available in nature and also their extraction procedures are less expensive. Moreover, herbal drugs have negligible side -effects as compared to the synthetic drugs available in the market. This review mainly focuses on the different measures of Galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity and also the herbal drugs which can be employed to cure Galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity
1 illus, 47 ref
SANMATI N, AHALYA N, DHAMODHAR P, KRISHNAKUMAR A
000629 SANMATI N, AHALYA N, DHAMODHAR P, KRISHNAKUMAR A (Biotechnology Dep, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore -560 054, Email: email@example.com) : Advances in molecular biology techniques for the diagnosis of dental caries: A mini review. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 233-8.
The early and accurate detection of dental caries is very important in preventing the irreversible loss of tooth, reducing treatment costs and minimising invasive techniques for restoration of tooth. Conventional diagnosis of dental caries is restricted to visual inspection, tactile sensation and radiographs. Although they are satisfactory in the detection of carious lesions, they are inadequate in early detection of dental lesions. Because of these deficiencies, new molecular detection methods have been developed to aid better and early diagnosis. In the present review, various molecular biology techniques for early detection of dental caries are explored. The advantages of each molecular method are discussed in detail. The use of molecular techniques adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry and lower the treatment cost as well.
2 tables, 39 ref
SHARMA K, ROY A, BHARADVAJA N
000628 SHARMA K, ROY A, BHARADVAJA N (Biotechnology Dep, Delhi Technological Univ, Delhi-110 042, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : A review on phytocompounds targeting Parkinson’s disease. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 224-32.
Parkinson’s disease is a chronic disease that has a severe impact on a person’s lifestyle once it is contracted. It is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Only a few factors have been identified to signal a predisposition towards its development and no singularly known cause for the disease. This is why no cure for PD exists. Instead, the existing drugs in the market are towards the amelioration of symptoms. This review was conducted to explore the possible phytocompounds that could be further investigated in hope to develop more efficient, potent, or readily available medication, with a focus on each of their pharmacological mechanisms. Phytochemicals derived from plants are the future of pharmaceutical drugs that are able to combine the efficacy of conventional medicine with the benefit of their organic sources. Many of the compounds have been investigated in and open new possibilities. Further investigation on efficacy of healing and protective effects of phytocompounds provides a promising medication.
1 table, 69 ref
HIRAPURE P, SHANWARE A
000627 HIRAPURE P, SHANWARE A (Rashtrasant Tukudoji Maharaj Nagpur Univ, Nagpur, Maharashtra, Email: email@example.com) : Extremophiles: Potential sources of valuable biomolecules. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 219-23.
Extremophiles are a large group of organisms with the ability to thrive under extreme environmental conditions such as high and low temperatures, high salt levels, radiation and high antibiotic concentrations. Extremophilic microorganisms have established a diversity of molecular strategies in order to survive in extreme conditions and hence they are able to produces new and novel biomolecules. They have been the center of attention due to the remarkable benefits to the human society. The knowledge of various novel biomolecules isolated from extremophiles and their application is essential for chemists, biochemists, chemical/biochemical/ bioprocess engineers, genetic engineers, biotechnologists, molecular biologists as well as computational biologists. This study discusses the classification of extremophiles, their survival mechanism and applications of various biomolecules isolated from extremophiles.
1 illus, 2 tables, 46 ref
MERCIMEK T H A, BAKIRHAN P, COLAK E, SAYGIN M
000620 MERCIMEK T H A, BAKIRHAN P, COLAK E, SAYGIN M (Aral?k Univ, Kilis, Turkey, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Antibiofilm activity of amylase from Bacillus spp. against foodborne pathogens. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 169-73.
New strategies have been currently developed for removal and control of biofilm-associated microbial infections. Therefore, it is aimed to research the antibiofilm activity of amylase from Bacillus spp. on biofilm forming Citrobacter spp. 1.3 and 2.5 foodborne pathogens in this study. The bacteria belonging to genus Bacillus were isolated from Kilis soil sample. These strains produced amylase were named as 2B, 5B and 8B. Compared to others, the extracellular amylase sample purified from 2B strain showed the highest specific activity (20.83 ± 0.77 U mg-1 ) at 90 mg mL-1 enzyme concentration. Molecular weight of the amylase was calculated as 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE and native PAGE. The pink colonies of foodborne pathogens indicating antibiofilm activity of amylase were followed on congo red agar during 6-24h incubation. Our results revealed that 2B amylase sample at the 90 mg mL-1 concentration effectively inhibited the synthesis of exopolysaccharides of biofilm forming pathogens.
3 illus, 1 table, 25 ref
HAFIDZHA M A, AGUSTRIAWA D
000619 HAFIDZHA M A, AGUSTRIAWA D (Bioinformatics Dep, Indonesia International Institute for Life Science, East Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: email@example.com) : Identifying miRNA targeting prostate cancer gene in white latino populations. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 165-8.
Cancer is one of the top 10 leading causes of death in the world, according to the worldwide cancer data. Cases throughout 2018 reached 1.8 million, making the disease a dangerous threat in the 21st century. Cancer is a disease that causes uncontrolled growth of cell tissues and organs such as the brain, breast, liver and prostate glands. Cancer can grow in almost all cell tissues in the human body including the prostate gland of a man. Prostate cancer is a carcinoma that occurs in the prostate gland of male individuals. Researchers have found a way to inhibit cancer growth, especially prostate cancer which is by identifying a specific miRNA that might act as a tumor suppressor. miRNA is a short noncoding RNA that regulates the expression of a particular gene and is well conserved between different organisms. In this study, we try to identify several miRNAs and their specific target genes with the help of the pipeline that has been prepared. The statistical analysis result shows that hsa-miR-1286, hsa-miR-1294 andhsa-miR-3136 have the potential to be tumor suppressor genes.
1 illus, 2 tables, 11 ref
DIMOVSKA V, ILIEVA F, VELICKOVSKA S K, MIHAJLOV L, KOVACEVIC B, BALABANOVA B, CULEVA B, SERAFINOVSKA Z A
000615 DIMOVSKA V, ILIEVA F, VELICKOVSKA S K, MIHAJLOV L, KOVACEVIC B, BALABANOVA B, CULEVA B, SERAFINOVSKA Z A (Goce Delcev Univ, Stip, Macedonia, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Morphological and chemical assessment of juices and antimicrobial activity of peels from two varieties of pomegranates grown in the region of North Macedonia. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 133-9.
The chemical composition of pomegranate juice in terms of organic acids, sugars, vitamin C, total phenolics, catechins and anthocynanins from two Macedonian varieties “Karamustafa” and “Hicaz” was first objective of this study. Furthermore, morphological and physical characteristics of pomegranate fruits from autochthonous “Karamustafa” and “Hicaz” variety were compared. The level of the anthocyanins was significantly higher to “Hicaz” pomegranate variety and it was in good correlation to the results of hue and color of the juice. The most statistically significant difference was obtained for ascorbic acid which was four time higher for freshly squeezed juice from “Hicaz” pomegranate variety. In addition, the variation of chemical composition of elements of fruit juices from both variety could be attributed to the difference in cultivar. Finally, the last objective of our study was antibacterial activity of peel extracts from both varieties. The strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) was significant without statistical differences between both varieties
5 tables, 23 ref
THAPAR P, MALIK R K, SALOOJA M K
000612 THAPAR P, MALIK R K, SALOOJA M K (CT Univ, Ludhiana, Punjab, Email: email@example.com) : Application of Bacteriocins of Lactobacillus brevis as biomedicine. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 109-17.
World Health Organization (W.H.O.) has pointed that despite great improvements in the oral health of population in several countries, dental caries still persists and has become a global problem. The oral health care demands are beyond the capacities of the health care systems in most low and middle income countries. Therefore, it was thought to explore the natural ways by which the problems of dental caries can be prevented in a cost-effective manner. The inhibition of caries causing organisms can be done by naturally occurring substances like bacteriocins found in lactic acid bacteria. In the present study, prevention of dental caries by utilization of bacteriocins from Lactobacillus brevis has been done by incorporating bacteriocin in toothpaste. Five strains of Lactobacillus brevis isolated from curd were used for the production of bacteriocin. Out of five bacteriocin producers, the strain LB11(1) showed maximum percentage of MIC. The bacteriocin activity was optimized using different media, pH and temperature. The partial purification of the bacteriocin was done using ammonium sulphate precipitation and centrifugal filteration. The molecular weight of the purified bacteriocin was 3 kDa, while yield obtained was 100 per cent. The purified bacteriocin was then incorporated in the toothpaste to check the effect of inhibition on caries causing organisms (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus isolated from dental cavities). It was confirmed that the bacteriocin induced toothpaste can be applied to prevent dental caries directly by the consumer and in a cost effective manner.
6 illus, 2 tables, 22 ref
MUNOZ-CONCHA D, QUINTERO J, ERCISLI S
000611 MUNOZ-CONCHA D, QUINTERO J, ERCISLI S (Ciencias Agrarias Dep, Católica del Maule Univ, Curico, Chile, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Media and hormones influence in micropropagation success of blackberry cv. ‘Chester’. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 103-8.
Berry fruits are a rich source for human nutrition and play a major role for the livelihood of small producers. Among hybrid blackberries, the cultivar ‘Chester’ has good fruit quality but traditional propagation methods show limiations. The advantages of micropropagation exploited by the breeding industry in many plant species need to be developed for the cultivar ‘Chester’. This work aimed to find better conditions in the stages of in vitro establishment, shoot proliferation and rooting for the micropropagation of this cultivar. Plant material was collected at different developmental stages. Experiments evaluated sterilization procedures, shoot multiplication, elongation, rooting and acclimation. Actively growing new shoots taken in spring time allowed to obtain in vitro culture establishment of axenic tissues. Shoot multiplication rate was highest (5.2) on MS medium. The media had a stark incluence on rooting with a higher proportion of rooted shoots on WPM and DKW. The highest number of roots per shoot (5.4) and higher root length were observed on WPM. The results stress the importance of evaluating different culture media for specific cultivars under micropropagation. The protocol described permits the micropropagation of blackberry cv. ‘Chester’, opening a new alternative for plant production in the difficult propagation of this cultivar.
2 illus, 1 table, 28 ref
SRIVASTAVA A, SINGH C P, SINGH R
000610 SRIVASTAVA A, SINGH C P, SINGH R (Amity Univ, Lucknow- 226 028, Email: email@example.com) : Effect of silver nanoparticles on the growth and development of Indian Brassica and Cicer arietinum. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 94-102.
Agriculture fulfils the daily needs of humans directly or indirectly. As population on earth is increasing, necessity to use advanced technologies is also increasing like nano-biotechnology in agriculture to enhance the yield and protect the crops from several diseases. In this study we have isolated and screened some rhizospheric microflora and checked their activity for the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The effect of synthesised AgNPs was then analysed for the growth of two crop plants Cicer arietinum and Indian brassica. Among the microbial strains Bacillus cereus was identified by 16sRNA gene sequencing technique for the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Synthesised AgNPs were confirmed by UV- visible spectra (λ=430nm) and Transmission Electron Microscopy 7-50nm. The effect of silver nanoparticles (10mM) was checked on growth of crops Cicer arietinum and Indian brassica and germination percentage was calculated. In case of Cicer arietinum, the seeds that were soaked in nanoparticles solution for overnight were found to have highest germination percentage 100 % as compared to non-treated seeds. Whereas, in case of Indian brassica the germination percentage of seeds that were treated with bacterial culture was enhanced by 80 % and the GP of silver nanoparticles treated seeds was inhibited. This study illustrated the effect of biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles on the growth and development of two crops Cicer arietinum and Indian brassica and can be stretched to other important crops.
3 tables, 21 ref
GANGWAR P, SHUKLA S, TRIVEDI M
000607 GANGWAR P, SHUKLA S, TRIVEDI M (Amity Univ, Lucknow Campus- 226 010, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Screening and identification of salt-tolerant lines in novel chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasms. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 74-81.
Salinity is the most serious abiotic stress for plants growth. In the present study, the response of eighteen novel chickpea genotypes was studied under salinity. Salt stress significantly (p < 0.05) reduces plant growth (shoot length, shoot weight, root length, root weight, etc.) and impacts physiological parameters (relative water content, membrane stability index, total chlorophyll content) in the selected genotypes. Based on the percentage reduction of the above-mentioned attributes, the experimental genotypes were divided into salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant categories. Genotypes IC326761, IC375927, IC223042, and IC269123 showed salt tolerance, while the genotypes IC327642 and IC326265 were considered as salt sensitive. Tolerant genotypes (IC326761, IC375927, IC223042, and IC269123) were able to maintain the maximum dry matter, membrane stability index, total chlorophyll content, and relative water content under saline conditions. The results showed a significant correlation between salt tolerance and physiological properties of chickpea. Hence, these physiological properties could be used as a marker for the selection of salt-tolerant chickpea lines. These markers can significantly separate salt potential genotypes from a large number of germplasm sets at the germination stage using potculture which will help to a large extent in reducing labor costs during field trials. The current study has identified new donors for salinity tolerance that will further contribute to the development of high-yielding salt-tolerant chickpea varieties.
1 illus, 4 tables, 47 ref
SIVARAJ C, UMA MAHESWARI M, REENA A, ARUMUGAM P, ARUNAGIRINATHAN N
000600 SIVARAJ C, UMA MAHESWARI M, REENA A, ARUMUGAM P, ARUNAGIRINATHAN N (Armats Biotek Training and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, Email: email@example.com) : Antioxidant potential and GC-MS profiling of Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) Kutzing. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 26-30.
Seaweeds are one of the most abundant resources of the nature. They are generally known to possess a large variety of bioactive components that can be used in medicine, food and various other industrial applications. In the present study, the brown seaweed Turbinaria conoides was investigated for its phytochemical composition and antioxidant potential. To determine the antioxidant potential, DPPH radical, ABTS+ radical cation scavenging assays, phosphomolybdenum reduction and Fe3+ reducing power assays were carried out. The maximum DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 61.74 % at 600 µg/mL concentration. The GC-MS analysis revealed the phytochemical composition of Turbinaria conoides, especially the presence of flavone and coumarine promising bioactive potential.
1 illus, 4 tables, 15 ref
WIJAYA D N, SUSANTO F A, SOESILOHADI H, PURWESTRI Y A, ISMOYOWATI D, NURINGTYAS T R
000599 WIJAYA D N, SUSANTO F A, SOESILOHADI H, PURWESTRI Y A, ISMOYOWATI D, NURINGTYAS T R (Tropical Biology Dep, Gadjah Mada Univ, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : NMR metabolite profiling analysis of pigmented rice resistance to rice ear bug. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 17-25.
Rice ear bugs or Leptocorisa oratorius F. are major rice pests reported to reduce the rice yields severely. The present study aimed to screen local pigmented cultivars for resistance to rice ear bugs and perform metabolomics analysis to identify the metabolites responsible for the resistance character. For screening, eight cultivars including both black and red varieties were used. Rice ear bugs used for bioassay were collected from the field. The assay results showed that two cultivars of black rice and one cultivar of red rice exhibited high resistance characters as per the Standard Evaluation System guidelines for rice. Metabolite profiling of rice seeds was performed at the milky stage using 500 Mhz NMR JEOL, followed by multivariate analysis with SIMCA ver 14. Metabolite profiling identified nine out of 15 metabolites, which were significantly different between the most resistant and susceptible cultivars. In the red rice, hydroxy-Lproline, threonine and formic acid and for black rice, valine, glutamate, α-glucose, β-glucose, galactinol and raffinose were identified as potential metabolites conferring the resistance character. This study identified the most resistant cultivars which can be used in the future to support the development of a novel line of cultivar resistant to rice ear bug.
4 illus, 2 tables, 56 ref
DHASARATHAN P, AYESHATHUL J, SWATHI A, RANJITSINGH A J A
000598 DHASARATHAN P, AYESHATHUL J, SWATHI A, RANJITSINGH A J A (Biotechnology Dep, Prathyusha Engineering Coll, Chennai— 602 025, Email: email@example.com) : Cloning green fluorescent protein gene in pQE-80L vector and characterisation of transformed protein in E.Coli. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 10-6.
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) role in different applications of biotechnology such as protein fusions, imagining whole organism, and transcriptional reporters created an interest to probe the possibility of its production. Cloning the gene responsible for fluorescence using recombinant DNA technology and its expression in prokaryotes like Escherichia coli is very useful in many biotechnological applications. The gene encoding Green Fluorescent Protein highly stable (GFPhs) was cloned into the pQE80L vector and the cloned gene was transformed into E.coli strains of DH5α and Tyrosine auxotroph. The plasmid has been isolated from the respective colonies of DH5α containing pQE80L vector. The isolated plasmid was double digested using BamHI and HindIII and the digested plasmid was confirmed with the Agarose gel electrophoresis. The expression profile of GFP has been confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The purification of GFP protein was carried out through Nickel His-tag affinity chromatography using Akta purifier. The purified protein was characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The secondary structure of the purified GFP was confirmed by CD spectroscopy. The synthesised can be harvested to be used in different biotechnological applications.
7 illus, 1 table, 18 ref
SHARMA P, GUPTA S, SOURIRAJAN A, KUMAR V, BAUMLER DAVID J, KAMAL D
000597 SHARMA P, GUPTA S, SOURIRAJAN A, KUMAR V, BAUMLER DAVID J, KAMAL D (Shoolini Univ, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Cloning and characterization of gene encoding extracellular L- glutaminase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans PW13 isolated from Tattapani Hotspring of Himachal Pradesh, India. Res J Biotech 2021, 16(5), 1-9.
A gene encoding glutaminase was isolated from Geobacillus thermoleovorans strain PW13. An open reading frame of 184 amino acids was identified in PC4 clone and encodes for Glutaminase (EC 220.127.116.11) showing 94 % identity with glutaminase from Geobacillus kaustophilus. The transformant PC4 secreted extracellular L- glutaminase and this enzyme activity was found to be maximum at 70 °C and pH 7.0. Glutaminase enzyme was stable at 70 °C for 3 h of incubation. The specific activity of the enzyme at these conditions was 63 U/mg. Further, the glutaminase activity of PC4 was increased by 1.1-1.5 fold in the presence of 1mM Fe2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ and remained unaffected in the presence of 0.5 % ethanol or cyclohexane. In turn, the glutaminase activity was decreased by 63 % in the presence of Triton X 100 (0.1 %), 40 % in the presence of SDS (0.1 %) and gradually decreased (33 – 49 %) in the presence of EDTA (5 –10 mM).
5 illus, 34 ref
NARAYANASWAMY R, ISAAC C, VALLIVITAN K
000589 NARAYANASWAMY R, ISAAC C, VALLIVITAN K (Biotechnology Dep, St.Peter’s Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai- 600 054, Email: email@example.com) : Molecular docking analysis of selected Clitoriaternatea constituents as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP 2 & MMP 9) inhibitors. Rasayan J Chem 2021, 14(1), 659-64.
Clitoriaternatea has been reported to possess various biological activities such as analgesic, anxiolyticanti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-convulsant, anti-depressant, anti-fungal, anti-helmintic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antipyretic, hypoglycemic, nephro-protective and sedative. Therefore the present study was aimed to evaluate its docking behavior of eight selected constituents of Clitoriaternatea namely Nonanoic acid, Benzoic acid, Pentadecanoic acid, Cyclopentaneundecanoic acid, Palmitic acid,2-Octanoicacid,9 Octadecanoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy1,6-bis(3-methoxyphenyl)hexane-1,6-dione against Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP 2 and MMP 9) using Patch Dock method. In addition to this, Molecular physicochemical, Drug-likeness ,ADME(Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) analyses were also carried out using mol inspiration and Swiss ADME methods respectively. The molecular physicochemical analysis revealed that Pentadecanoic acid, Cyclopentaneundecanoic acid, Palmitic acid, and 9 Octadecanoic acid violated the five rules of thumb. About drug-likeness property, Benzoic acid exhibited a better score compared to all other ligands. Docking studies revealed that 3,4-dihydroxy-1,6-bis(3- methoxyphenyl)hexane-1,6-dione has maximum interaction energy for both MMP 2 (-355.28 kcal/mol) and MMP 9 (- 392.21kcal/mol) and similarly Benzoic acid has exhibited the least interaction energy for both MMP 2 (-155.83 kcal/mol) and MMP 9 (,-155.67 kcal/mol). As compared to the other investigated ligands,3,4-dihydroxy-1,6-bis(3- methoxyphenyl)hexane-1,6-dione and 9 Octadecanoic acids were the two ligands that showed interactions with amino acid residue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the present study outcomes might provide new insight in understanding these eight ligands, as potential candidates for MMP’s inhibitory activity.
2 illus, 5 tables, 29 ref
KHARWAR R, DIXIT R B
000568 KHARWAR R, DIXIT R B (Ashok and Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Study and Research in Biotechnology and Allied Sciences, New Vallabh Vidyanagar- 388 121, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ) : Synthesis, in-vitro antimicrobial, in-silico admet analysis and DNA interaction of n-(8- hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)-4- methylbenzenesulfonamide and its metal complexes: a combined spectroscopy and molecular docking studies. Rasayan J Chem 2021, 14(1), 493-509.
Here we report the synthesis of N-(8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (8HQMBS) ligand and its metal (M(II)) complexes, where M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) & Zn(II) in 2:1 molar ratio. The synthesis was investigated by the study of physicochemical properties, elemental analysis, FT-IR, Mass, NMR, TGA, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility. Octahedral geometry of metal complexes was proposed based on the aforementioned analysis. In vitro, antibacterial and antifungal screening showed enhanced activity of ligand upon metal complexation. Complexes-DNA interaction was investigated and the results indicated that the complexes could strongly bind to CT-DNA by intercalation mechanism. In silico ADMET study revealed good drug-likeness characteristics of the compounds. Finally, a comparative molecular docking study with the bacterial proteins and a DNA helix was performed to offer better insight into the binding mechanism and critical interactions in their active pockets. The docking results confirmed the spectroscopic results.
12 illus, 7 tables, 49 ref
TIKENDRA L, POTSHANGBAM A M, DEY A, DEVI T R, SAHOO M R, NONGDAM P
000344 TIKENDRA L, POTSHANGBAM A M, DEY A, DEVI T R, SAHOO M R, NONGDAM P (Biotechnology Dep, Manipur Univ, Canchipur- 795003, Manipur) : RAPD, ISSR, and SCoT markers based genetic stability assessment of micropropagated Dendrobium fimbriatum Lindl. var. oculatum Hk. f.- an important endangered orchid. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021, 27(2), 341-57.
Dendrobium fimbriatum is an ornamental and medicinal orchid listed in the Red data book of IUCN. Phytohormones’ effect on the in vitro regeneration of the orchid was studied using Mitra medium supplemented with different growth regulators. KN produced effective shoot formation when present alone or in combination with IBA or NAA. The shooting was gradually increased when KN concentration was increased from 0.8 to 4.8 mg L−1, but the opposite response was observed with BAP at higher concentration (4.8 mg L−1). IBA either in combination with BAP or KN promoted effective root development and multiplication. Micropropagated orchids grown in the basal medium devoid of any phytohormone showed 100 % monomorphism, while low genetic polymorphism of 1.52 % (RAPD—Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA), 1.19 % (ISSR-Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) and 3.97 % (SCoT—Start Codon Targeted) was exhibited among the regenerants propagated in the hormone enriched medium. UPGMA (Unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages) dendrograms showed the grouping of mother plant (MP) with the in vitro regenerants. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) further confirmed the clustering patterns as determined by the cluster analysis. The study reported for the first time the successful in vitro propagation of Dendrobium fimbriatum and their genetic stability assessment using molecular markers.
WRIGHT M H, GREENE A C, COCK I E
000221 WRIGHT M H, GREENE A C, COCK I E (Griffith Univ, Queensland, Australia) : Evaluating the antimicrobial potential of eucalyptus Baileyana f. muell. and eucalyptus major (maiden) blakely against the fish spoilage-causing bacterium shewanella putrefaciens. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(2), 133-7.
Eucalyptus baileyana (Bailey’s stringy bark) and Eucalyptus major (Queensland grey gum) have been previously used as antimicrobials against a variety of ailments. This study evaluated the effectiveness of E. baileyana and E. major as inhibitory agents against Shewanella putrefaciens, a bacterium widely associated with fish spoilage. E. baileyana and E. major extracts were prepared using the leaves of each plant with methanol or water as the extraction solvent. Growth inhibition and minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined against S. putrefaciens through disc diffusion assays. MIC values were subsequently quantified to evaluate the extracts efficacies as antibacterial agents. Finally, the toxicity of each extract was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. E. baileyana aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts inhibited the growth of S. putrefaciens in the disc diffusion assay, with MIC values of 1411 and 1221 μg/mL respectively. Similarly, E. major leaf extracts also showed growth inhibition of S. putrefaciens, with MIC values of 1686 μg/mL for the aqueous extract, and 1160 μg/mL for the methanolic extract. However, toxicity studies of the extracts revealed that all extracts were toxic and likely unsuitable for human consumption (LC50 values 455-1146 μg/mL) as determined by the Artemia franciscana bioassay. While the E. baileyana and E. major leaf extracts were effective in preventing microbial growth, given their relatively high levels of toxicity, they would not be suitable for use as a preservative in the prevention of fish spoilage. However, the antibacterial capacity of the extracts indicates that the extracts may show promise as a surface disinfectant, and this should be investigated further.
2 illus, 2 tables, 27 ref
SHAILAJAN S, SINGH S, MENON S
000220 SHAILAJAN S, SINGH S, MENON S (Ramnarain Ruia Autonomous Coll, Mumbai, Maharashtra) : Chromatography assisted validation of alternate plant materials in a polyherbal formulation: A prospective positive substitution. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(2), 127-32.
Bergenia ligulata Wall. is a popular medicinal herb from family Saxifragaceae, belonging to category of medicinal plants, the authentic species of which are not available easily. Though Ayurvedic Formulary of India prescribes the use of Bergenia ligulata, manufacturers have been using different species of Bergenia in many traditional Ayurvedic formulations including Pushyanuga churna (PC). Commercial exploitation of Bergenia ligulata has resulted in imbalance between supplies of this plant drug as compared to its demand. Commercially therefore, Bergenia ciliata which is more abundantly available, is substituted for Bergenia ligulata. The present study was undertaken to validate the use of Bergenia ciliata in a polyherbal formulation (PC), as a positive substitute for Bergenia ligulata. One in-house PC containing B. ligulata, along with two commercially available formulations of PC containing different species of Bergenia were compared for their bergenin content using validated HPLCmethod to evaluate the phytochemical equivalence. Bergenin content in the in-house formulation containing B. ligulata was found to be 0.27mg/gm whereas the commercial samples containing B. ciliata contained 0.24mg/gm of bergenin while another marketed formulation without label claim contained 0.162mg/gm of bergenin. The results clearly support the use of B. ciliata as a positive substitute for B. ligulata in PC. Positive substitution can be adopted by manufacturing units for the medicinal plant ingredients, which are scarcely available, to prevent their over-exploitation from the wild. Such substitutions can be justified if phytochemical equivalence could be demonstrated by validated chromatographic techniques. Nevertheless, evidence based efficacy studies need to be conducted additionally to corroborate such usage.
1 illus, 4 tables, 22 ref
ATIQ-UR-REHMAN, TALIB F, AFTAB T
000218 ATIQ-UR-REHMAN, TALIB F, AFTAB T (Punjabi Univ, Lahore, Pakistan) : FTIR, HPLC, GC-MS Analysis and investigation of hypoglycemic effects of leaves extracts of Fagonia indica. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(2), 109-18.
The present study was aimed for phytochemical analysis, investigations of different functional groups, the hypoglycemic potential of Fagonia indica leaves extracts, Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the most active hypoglycemic methanol extract. After extraction using cold maceration method, phytochemical screening, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, investigation of in vitro hypoglycemic potential of leaves extracts of the plant by α-glucosidase (sucrase) inhibitory assay were assessed using the standard methods. RPHPLC and GC-MS analysis of the most active methanol extract was done to identify various biologically active compounds. Phytochemical analysis showed various phytochemicals in the plant. FTIR spectral analysis showed diagnostic peaks of various functional groups. Methanol extract of the plant leaves showed the highest sucrase inhibition (37.0±1.4 %) at 100 μg/mL concentration. It was followed by aqueous extract (29.1±1 %), chloroform extract (27.7±0.5 %) and n-hexane extract (25.5±0.9 %) at the same concentration. RP-HPLC and GC-MS analysis of methanol extract showed the presence of various compounds with specific retention times. The plant leaves possessed in vitro hypoglycemic potential with competitive inhibition of enzyme sucrase. Methanol extract is the most effective agent in managing diabetes due to the presence of bioactive phytocomponents.
7 illus, 4 tables, 46 ref
SHAHRAJABIAN M H, SUN W, CHENG Q
000217 SHAHRAJABIAN M H, SUN W, CHENG Q (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China) : The function of some important tcm and iranian medicinal plants in treatment of viral hepatitis. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(2), 100-8.
Hepatitis is a systematic viral infection which significantly influences the liver and is divided into five types according to the causative virus. The goal of this article was to review some important medicinal plants used in both traditional Chinese and Iranian medicine in treatment of hepatitis. This manuscript included randomized control experiments, review articles, observational and analytical studies, which have been surveyed in Google Scholar, Scopus, Research Gate and PubMed by using keywords including hepatitis, medicinal plants, traditional Iranian medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and health benefits. All relevant papers in both English and Chinese language were searched. We screened the articles first by reviewing titles and abstracts and subsequently reading the whole manuscript of those publications deemed suitable. Three main kinds of hepatitis are recognized as hepatitis A, B, and C, and two other types are D and E. Each is caused by a disimilar virus, and all three types generally last for up to 6 months, although types B and C can be chronic, lasting substantially longer. All relevant papers in English language from different countries were collected. The keywords of hepatitis, medicinal plants, traditional Iranian medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and health benefits were searched in Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct and PubMed. The most important herbs used to prevent and treatment of different kinds of hepatitis are cordyceps (Cordyceps sinensis), milk thistle (Silybum marianum), licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum). The most important signs and symptoms of hepatits are flu-like symptoms, abdominal pain, fatigue, jaundice, nausea, loss of appetite and vomiting, weight loss, dark urine, diarrhea, whole body itching, mild anemia, as well as enlarged and tender liver. The use of natural and traditional medicinal plants in the treatments of different hepatitis may provide new solutions and more favorable results in the treatment of viral hepatitis.
5 tables, 115 ref
COCK I E
000216 COCK I E (Griffith Univ, Queensland, Australia) : Mirbelia oxylobioides f. muell. leaf extracts lack antibacterial activity and are non-toxic in vitro. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(2), 95-9.
The development of bacterial strains that are resistant to multiple antibiotics has made the discovery of new antibiotics a priority for medical research. Examination of plants for new antimicrobial agents is an attractive prospect and numerous recent studies have screened plants for antibacterial activity. Despite this, Australian native plants have been relatively neglected. Mirbelia oxylobioides F.Muell. is a native Australian shrub of the family Fabaceae. Very few studies have yet examined species for antibacterial properties against human pathogens. The ability of M. oxyloboides leaf extracts to inhibit the growth of a panel of bacterial pathogens was investigated by disc diffusion assay. Toxicity was examined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. M. oxyloboides methanolic and aqueous extracts were ineffective at inhibiting the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative panels of bacteria. The extracts were nontoxic or of low toxicity following 24 h exposure. The M. oxyloboides leaf extracts lacked growth inhibitory bioactivity against a panel of pathogenic bacteria and were nontoxic in the Artemia nauplii assay. However, these extracts may have other therapeutic properties and testing against protozoa, fungi, virus and tumour cells is required.
4 illus, 1 table, 32 ref
OHIAGU F O, CHIKEZIE P C, CHIKEZIE C M
000214 OHIAGU F O, CHIKEZIE P C, CHIKEZIE C M (Biochemistry Dep, Imo State Univ, Owerri, Nigeria) : Toxicological significance of bioactive compounds of plant origin. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(2), 67-77.
The evaluation of toxicological significance of medicinal plants is necessary prior to their use for drug development or for the purpose of improving the therapeutic efficacy of existing therapies. Regrettably, there is little information on the toxicity profiles of the chemical constituents of commonly used medicinal plants. Meanwhile, available information on the toxicity concerns of the use of medicinal plants are often taken for granted and ignored. The information and data used in this review report were sourced from scientific databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, SpringerLink, Medline, ScienceDirect, and Mendeley. The noxious chemical compounds in plants may be neurotoxic, mutagenic or cytotoxic. They may disrupt metabolic processes in living organisms and adversely affect the skin and the mucosal tissues, etc. It is noteworthy that the beneficial as well as the toxicological outcomes following the use of plant materials depends on the chemical nature of their constituent bioactive compounds. Plants, especially those used for ethnomedicinal purposes, contain significant amounts of noxious bioactive compounds, which may elicit adverse health effects on both humans and other animals. The isolation and purification of plant bioactive compounds for toxicological evaluation prior to their usage in the development of pharmaceutical formulations is recommended.
10 illus, 122 ref
BLANC C, COCK I E
000212 BLANC C, COCK I E (Griffith Univ, Brisbane, Australia) : An examination of the antioxidant capacity, antibacterial activity and toxicity of commercial kale and spirulina powders. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(1), 45-51.
The development of antibiotic resistant bacteria has resulted in treatment failure for the current antibiotic regimen against many bacteria. A corresponding decrease in the development of new antibiotic therapies has highlighted the urgent need for the discovery of new antibiotics. An examination of ‘superfoods’ is an attractive option due to the high antioxidant capacities and beneficial secondary compounds reported in many ‘superfoods’. This study was undertaken to test kale and spirulina extracts for the ability to inhibit the growth of a panel of bacterial pathogens of human importance. Commercially sourced kale and spirulina powders were extracted and tested for antimicrobial activity using modified disc diffusion and liquid dilution MIC methods. Toxicity was evaluated using an Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of kale and spirulina displayed noteworthy growth inhibitory activity against P. mirabilis. The aqueous spirulina extract was a particularly good inhibitor of P. mirabilis, with MIC values as low as 220μg/mL. In contrast, all extracts were ineffective or of low inhibitory activity against all other bacteria tested. All extracts were non-toxic in the Artemia nauplii bioassay, confirming their suitability as natural antibacterial therapies. These studies indicate that aqueous kale and spirulina extracts are promising inhibitors of P. mirabilis growth and may be useful in the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, as well as other diseases caused by that bacterium.
2 illus, 2 tables, 50 ref
MPALA L N, CHIKOWE G R, COCK I E
000211 MPALA L N, CHIKOWE G R, COCK I E (Griffith Univ, Queensland, Australia) : Astrotrichia latifolia benth. leaf extracts lack antibacterial activity and are non-toxic in vitro. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(1), 40-4.
The recent development of extensively antibiotic resistant bacteria has necessitated the search for novel antibacterial compounds. An examination of aromatic plants and traditional medicines is an attractive option for drug discovery. Astrotrichia latifolia Benth. is a native Australia shrub that has yet to be tested for antibacterial activity. The ability of A. latifolia leaf extracts to inhibit the growth of a panel of bacterial pathogens was investigated by disc diffusion assay. Toxicity was examined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. A. latifolia leaf methanolic and aqueous extracts were completely ineffective at inhibiting the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative panels of bacteria. The extracts were non-toxic in the Artemia nauplii bioassay following 24 h exposure. A. latifolia leaf extracts were completely ineffective bacterial growth inhibitors. However, these extracts may have other therapeutic properties and testing against protozoa, virus and tumour cells is required.
4 illus, 1 table, 42 ref
SHAHRAJABIAN M H, SUN W, SOLEYMANI A, KHOSHKARAM M, CHENG Q
000210 SHAHRAJABIAN M H, SUN W, SOLEYMANI A, KHOSHKARAM M, CHENG Q (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China) : Asafoetida, god’s food, a natural medicine. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(1), 36-9.
Asafoetida is dried latex which is extracted from the taproot of many species of Ferula, a perennial herb native to the East Mediterranean and Central Asian regions. It is also a common ingredient in some cuisines. A literature search was conducted in Science Direct, Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Springer and Medline. The most important health benefits consist of reducing bloating, helping to relieve asthma, lower blood pressure and menstrual pain, as well as treating headaches, insect bites, indigestion and as a laxative. It is good for diabetic people, treats nerve disorders, helps fight free radicals, aids in reducing acne, treats corns and calluses and reduces hair loss. This review article allowed verifying asafoetida as sources of compounds with valuable nutritional and bioactive properties with great ability for incorporation into foods with functional properties.
1 illus, 3 tables, 51 ref
SHAHRAJABIAN M H, SUN W, SHEN H, CHENG Q
000209 SHAHRAJABIAN M H, SUN W, SHEN H, CHENG Q (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China) : A mini-review of galactomannas and diosgenin in fenugreek. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(1), 26-30.
Galactomannas are polysaccharides similar to cellulose and starch. A literature search was conducted in Medline, Scopus, PubMed and Google scholar databases. The keywords were fenugreek, health benefits, bioactive components, galactomannans, diosgenin and pharmaceutical science. Results: Fenugreek galactomannan is a heteropolysaccharide which reduces blood glucose level as normalize the surface activities inside the small intestine. They are also used in food products in order to increase the thickness of the water content. The most important health benefits of galactomanna are reduction in LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic, blood lipids, as well as to reduce blood pressure and fibrinolysis. Diosgenin is an isospirostane derivative and the product of acids or enzymes hydrolysis process of dioscin and protodioscin. Conclusion: Diosgenin shows biological activities including antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic effects.
2 illus, 3 tables, 30 ref
SUN W, SHAHRAJABIAN M H, SHEN H, CHENG Q
000208 SUN W, SHAHRAJABIAN M H, SHEN H, CHENG Q (Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China) : Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), the king of fruits, with both traditional and modern pharmacological health benefits. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(1), 22-5.
One of the most important tropical and subtropical fruit is lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn). It has been widely cultivated in the Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and Sichuan. A literature search was conducted in Medline, Scoupus, PubMed and Google scholar databases. The keywords were lychee, traditional Chinese medicine, modern pharmaceutical science, super fruit and health benefits. The major chemical constituents of lychee are flavonoids, sterols, triterpenes, phenolic and other bioactive compounds. The most important health benefits of lychee is for skin to prevent signs of aging, help remove blemishes and reduce sunburns. It also has hair benefits by promoting hair growth and providing a distinct shine. Other important health benefits include anticancer effects, promoting cardiovascular health, improving digestion, prevention of cataracts, anti-influenza activity, aiding in weight loss, regulating blood circulation, preventing blood vessel rupture, antiinflammatory effects, protection from herpes virus infection, strengthening immunity, regulating blood pressure, strengthening bones, preventing anemia and increasing the libido. However, lychee can disturb hormonal balance and may cause allergic reactions in some people. Furthermore, because of high sugar content, it may have negative impacts on people who suffer diabetes. Conclusion: The pharmacological and phytochemical characteristics of lychee demonstrate that it is one of the most important super-fruits and medicinal Chinese plants.
3 tables, 43 ref
SUN W, SHAHRAJABIAN M H, CHENG Q
000207 SUN W, SHAHRAJABIAN M H, CHENG Q (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China) : Schisandra chinensis, five flavor berry, a traditional chinese medicine and a super-fruit from North Eastern China. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(1), 13-21.
The aim of this review was to summarize the most important traditional and modern health benefits of Schisanda berry. We used PubMed, Science Direct and Google to search for and collect scientific publication for a full evaluation of current evidence in the literature indicating the potential role of Schisanda berry.The traditional Chinese medicine (TCMs) is essential components of alternative medicines. Schisandra berry (Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Magnoliaceae) or Wu-Wei-Zi, which means the fruit of five tastes is a commonly used herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The five tastes of Schisandra berry refer to its influence on the five visceral organs in the body. It is one of the oldest medicinal plants used in East of Asia, especially traditional Chinese medicine. S. chinensis is mainly distributed in provinces in northern China including Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning. S. chinensis can treat lung-Qi and kidney-Yin deficiencies, relieve coughs and asthma and stop persistent diarrhea. S. chinensis has been used to treat sleep disorder in traditional Chinese medicine and a tonic for kidney and brain in traditional Chinese medicine. Its extracts may apply as a preservative and as an additive to increase the flavor, taste and nutritional value of food. The five important components of S. chinensis are Schisandrol B, Schisandrin A, γ-Schisandrin, Gomisin N and Schisandrin C. Conclusion: The most important pharmacological effects of Schisandrol B are antiallergy, liver protection and anticarcinogenic effects; Schisandrin A has role in liver protection and anti-carcinogenic effect; γ-Schisandrin has liver protection and anti-carcinogenic effect, Gomisin N has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptis HepG2 cells, anti-hepatitis, anti-HIV, anti-carcinogenic effect; and Schisandrin C has protect liver, anti-HIV, anti-catchinogenic effect and anti-hepatitis. The treatment with natural herbal medicine which are also super-fruit and non-synthetic drug is recommended.
4 illus, 6 tables, 89 ref
SHAHRAJABIAN M H, SUN W, CHENG Q
000206 SHAHRAJABIAN M H, SUN W, CHENG Q (Biotechnology Research Institute, Beijing, China) : A review of leek (A. ampeloprasum l.), an important vegetable and food ingredient with remarkable pharmaceutical activities. Phcog Commn 2021, 11(1), 9-12.
This edible vegetable has been used as food and traditional herbal medicine in different countries. Most population of the world, especially in developing countries relies on traditional medicine. They keywords of leek, traditional Medicine, health Benefits and A. ampeloprasum, western medicine and pharmaceutical science were searched in Google Scholar, Scopus, Research Gate and PubMed.Allium ampeloprasum is considered a rich source of secondary metabolites, including phenolic acids and their derivatives, flavonoids (flavan, flavanone, flavones, flavonol, dihydroflavonol, flavan-3-ol, flavan-4-ol and flavan-3,4- diol) and flavonoid polymers (proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins). The most important flavonoid aglycone in leek is kaempferol. The total polyphenol, flavonoids and tannin contents and antioxidants activities were strongly influenced by the environmental conditions. The most important health benefits are anti-asthma, antiseptic, diuretic, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal and it is good to protect skin against damage and decreasing risk of gastrointestinal diseases. Leek is one important vegetable which can promote good health and serves as a primary defense mechanism against diseases.
1 table, 53 ref
BORIK R M, HUSSEIN M A
003064 BORIK R M, HUSSEIN M A (Biochemistry Dep, October 6 Univ, Egypt, Email: email@example.com) : Synthesis, molecular docking, biological potentials and structure activity relationship of new quinazoline and quinazoline-4-one derivatives. Asian J. Chem 2021, 33 (2), 423 - 38.
In this work, a new derivative of ethyl 5-chloro-2-(3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanamido)benzoate (1) was synthesized by reacting the amino group of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid (0.01 mol) and methyl 2-amino-5-chlorobenzoate in presence of PCl3. Cyclcondensation of 1 with hydrazine hydrate afforded the corresponding 2-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)-3-amino-6-chloroquinazolin-4(3H)-one (2). Also, new Schiff base 3 was prepared via reaction of 2-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)-3-amino-6-chloroquinazolin-4(3H)-one (2) with 4-hydroxy-3- methoxybenzaldehyde. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectral data. Also, the median lethal doses (LD50s) of compounds 1-3 in rats were 1125, 835 and 1785 mg/kg b.w., respectively. IC50 values of compounds (1, 3) as measured by DPPH• method was 136.47 and 73.54 µg/mL, respectively. IC50 values of compounds (1-3) as measured by ABTS•+ radical method was 0.8, 0.92 and 0.08 mg/mL, respectively. Antiulcerogenic activity at dose 1/20 LD50 in albino rats was 47.94, 24.60 and 56.45%, respectively. However, the anti-inflammatory effect at dose 1/20 LD50 of compounds (1-3) induced edema model after 120 min were 74.19, 69.93 and 59.03%, respectively. The synthesized compounds also possess hepatocytes and gastric mucosa protective activity against ibuprofen induced ulceration and LPS-induced liver toxicity, respectively in rats via normalization of oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory mediators (Na+ /K+ -ATPase, ALT, AST, LDH, TNF-α, NO, TBARS, GPx, CAT and SOD). Also, TNF-α, NO, PGE2 and COX-2 were inhibited in peritoneal macrophage cells at a concentration of 100 µg/L. Molecular docking suggested that the most active compounds 1 and 2 can be positioned within the active sites of COX-2 at Arg121 & Tyr356 similarly to ibuprofen (Arg-120, Glu-524 and Tyr-355). The compound 3–COX-2 complex generated by docking, revealed intricate interactions with a COX-2 channel, including hydrogen bonds with key residues Arg121 and phe519. These findings suggest that compounds 1-3 exhibited good antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory activity and safe on liver enzymes in rats.
9 illus, 11 tables, 68 ref
TESFAYE Y, KHAN F, GELAYE E
045689 TESFAYE Y, KHAN F, GELAYE E ( Biotechnology Dep, Sharda Univ, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected from Northern and Central Ethiopia during the 2018 outbreak. Vet World 2020, 13(3), 542-8.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in several developing countries and affects poor farmers through loss of production, death of diseased animals, and loss of animal byproducts. Forty-three samples were collected from 12 sites of five geographical located areas from suspected FMD virus (FMDV)-infected cattle during 2018. This study aimed to isolate and characterize the FMDVs using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and gene sequencing. Forty-three FMDV-suspected clinical samples cultured on BHK-21 cell were examined, followed by virus serotype identification using RT-PCR and gene sequencing. Twenty-nine (67.44 %) samples were cultured on BHK-21 cell, of which 14 (32.56 %) were not isolated; the 43 samples were analyzed using FMDV screening primers and serotype-specific primers. The contribution of the diseasecausing serotype was serotype O of 8 (18.60 %) samples, serotype A of 20 (46.51 %) samples, and mixed infection (O and A) of 1 (2.33 %) sample. Serotypes O and A were further characterized by phylogenetic analysis, which grouped them under East Africa 3 and Africa topotypes of genotype IV, respectively. Interestingly, serotype A was isolated for the 1st time from Keyet sub-woreda and Mulo woreda of Ethiopia, and mixed serotypes (O and A) were identified from the purchased animal. Molecular test result, sequencing, and phylogenetic tree reconstruction analysis revealed that the 2018 FMD outbreak in Ethiopia was caused by FMDV serotypes O and A. FMDV serotype A was the predominant strain circulating in most study areas of the country. Infections in one sample with mixed serotypes of O and A were also reported. The authors recommend a vaccine matching study of those field isolated viruses with the vaccine strain.
6 illus, 25 ref
ANUSRIHA S, PONNARMADHA S
044167 ANUSRIHA S, PONNARMADHA S (Biotechnology Dep, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Erode - 638401, Tamil Nadu, Email: email@example.com) : A review on anti-biofilm inhibitor from plant essential oils. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2020, 11(1), 14-24.
Bacteria predominantly remain in a self-produced polymeric matrix, adherent to an inert or living surface. This microenvironment community of bacteria is known as biofilm. Commonly visualized as a slimy layer, a number of unique features distinguish biofilms from their planktonic counterparts. Formation of biofilms depends on the extracellular signals, mechanical, biochemical, environmental conditions and genetic factors in bacteria. The attachment of biofilms is an intriguing process which is regulated by several characteristics such as substratum, cell surface, and growth medium. These biofilms cause various infections and are of at most importance when concerned about public health. One of the challenges faced during antibacterial drug development is to create compounds to counter-attack the biofilm infections. In this study, antibiofilm activities of five essential oils (EUGENOL; CINNAMALDEHYDE; PIPERIDINE; LIMONENE) were discussed. This review consisting of explicit evidence proved that plants are indeed a wonderful source to provide naturally occurring compounds for development of therapeutic and preventive agents against infections caused by biofilms.
6 illus, 23 ref
RAJESH M, SIVANANDHAN G, KAPILDEV G, GANAPATHI A
042271 RAJESH M, SIVANANDHAN G, KAPILDEV G, GANAPATHI A (Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Dep, Bharathidasan Univ, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024, Tamil Nadu, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Role of polyamines on in vitro regeneration and podophyllotoxin production in Podophyllum hexandrum royle. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(11), 777-87.
Podophyllum hexandrum is a popular medicinal plant endemic to Himalayas. In the present investigation, we report an efficient mass propagation protocol and Podophyllotoxin (PTOX) production in in vitro-derived plants of P. hexandrum, cultured on MS medium containing various plant growth regulators and polyamines. A combination of BA (1.5 mg/L), IAA (0.2 mg/L) and spermidine (20 mg/L) produced the highest number of multiple shoots per explant (23 shoots) after 6 weeks of culture; the regenerated shoots were elongated on the same medium. The elongated-shoots were rooted on root induction medium (half strength MS medium) supplemented with IBA (1.5 mg/L) and putrescine (15 mg/L). The rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and acclimatized with a survival rate of 68 % in the greenhouse. The highest content of PTOX (4.23 mg/g DW) was recorded in in vitro derived roots followed by leaves when compared to field-grown parent plants. The present system offers the possibility to use in vitro culture techniques for mass propagation and PTOX production for commercial utilization.
4 illus, 5 tables, 32 ref
GARG N K, DAHUJA A, SINGH A, SAPNA, CHAUDHARY D P
042267 GARG N K, DAHUJA A, SINGH A, SAPNA, CHAUDHARY D P (Biochemistry Div, Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute (SKNAU-Jobner), Jaipur, Rajasthan, Email: email@example.com) : Understanding the starch digestibility characteristics of Indian maize hybrids. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(10), 738-44.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of important cereals of tropic and tropic countries. It serves as the raw material for starch production. Among starch types, ‘resistant start’ is considered more beneficial for human health. Hence, the genotype (of maize) gains significance in selection for commercial cultivation. However, nutritional information on starch digestibility of maize genotypes is scarce. In this context, we analyzed a set of 80 maize hybrids for carbohydrate profile (sugar, starch, amylose, amylopectin) and resistant starch content. The results revealed significant variation for carbohydrate profile and resistant starch content among diverse maize hybrids. Pratap QPM Hybrid was found to be the highest, followed by FCH 184, RMH 3591, NT 6240 and CO 1 in terms of sugar content. For total starch, Rasi 3033 hybrid proved the best genotype followed by L 333 and HQPM 7. The genotype LG 3271 exhibited highest amylose content followed by Bio 9544, P 3502 and DHM 119, whereas NMH 731 was found to possess highest amylopectin content followed by Janahit 5053 and KDMH 176. For resistant starch, LG 3271 was the best genotype followed by P3502, KH 2192 and HQPM 1. Amylose and resistant starch content showed highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.550**), whereas highly significant negative correlation has been observed between amylopectin and resistant starch content (r = -0.548**). The scanning electron micrographs of genotypes having the highest and the lowest values of resistant starch revealed substantial differences in the granular structure showing that starch granules are compactly packed in the LG 3271.
3 illus, 2 tables, 48 ref
MYTHRI R, THARANNUM S, KRISHNAMURTHY V
042265 MYTHRI R, THARANNUM S, KRISHNAMURTHY V (Biotechnology Dep, PES Univ, Bangalore, Karnataka, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium from electroplating effluents by wild and mutant strains of Bacillus amyloliquifaciens. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(10), 722-9.
Chromium, a heavy metal, is a major xenobiotic element found in electroplating effluents. It is a recalcitrant of concern as it is highly toxic and carcinogenic. It exists as Cr (VI) which is highly soluble and bioavailable. Various conventional treatment technologies like adsorption, ion exchange, filtration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis have been used but they generate lot of sludge and residue. Hence, there is a need for an economical, faster and ecofriendly means of remediation for which bioremediation is preferred. In this study we attempted chromium removal by employing improved indigenous isolate Bacillus amyloliquifaciens sourced and identified from a previous study from chrome plating effluent collected from Peenya industrial area, Bengaluru, India. Strain improvement was achieved using physical mutagen (UV radiation) and chemical mutagens (ethidium bromide, ethyl methane sulphonate and acrylamide). A comparative study was carried out to screen the chromium remediation potential of wild type and mutants in chromium spiked sample and the electroplating effluent. The mutant generated using acrylamide (150 µg/mL) in comparison with wild type and other mutants was more capable of remediating chromium. At the end of 18 days, from the chrome electroplating effluent containing chromium (490 mg/100mL), the wildtype could remove 74 % (362.6 mg/100 mL), UV radiation induced mutant removed 83 % (406.7 mg / 100 mL) whereas acrylamide induced mutants removed 96.67 % (4 70 .4 mg/1 0 0 mL) o f chromium. Enzyme assays confirmed involvement of enzymes at sub cellular level in chromium remediation.
5 illus, 1 table, 41 ref
YADAV S S, TRIPATHI M
042263 YADAV S S, TRIPATHI M (Bundelkhand Univ, Jhansi - 284 128, Uttar Pradesh, Email: email@example.com) : Role of vitamin C on hormonal and pathological changes in Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) due to exposure to sodium fluoride. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(10), 706-13.
Fluoride is an essential trace element for humans and animals. Here, we explored the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on morphological, hormonal and histological changes in ovary of Asian stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) after exposure to 1/10th mg and 1/5th mg F/L of LC50 of fluoride in water for 45 and 90 days. Activities of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Histological evaluation of the ovaries was conducted after staining with haematoxylin-eosin (HE). Reproductive hormones were significantly decreased after NaF-treated groups. Ovary was found to be adversely effected by exposure to NaF. Maturation of follicles was inhibited by exposure after observation of GSI and histology in ovary. These results suggest that female reproductive system is adversely affected by NaF. NaF may thus significantly reduce the fertility of female fish. This study encompasses alteration in hormonal assay to evaluate the role of vitamins C in the recovery of fluoride toxicity in fish. Vitamin C is a water-soluble ROS scavenger with high potency.
3 illus, 51 ref
AL-TURKMANI M O, MOKRANI L, SOUKKARIEH C
042262 AL-TURKMANI M O, MOKRANI L, SOUKKARIEH C (Plant Biology Dep, Damascus Univ, Damascus, Syria, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Antileishmanial apoptotic activity of Nigella sativa L. essential oil and thymoquinone triggers on Leishmania tropica. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(10), 699-705.
Nigella sativa L., commonly called Black cumin, is well-known in folk medicine and numerous studies have shown its various pharmacological activities. In this study, we estimated the cytotoxic effects of N. sativa essential oil (NEO) and its major bioactive component Thymoquinone (TQ) on Leishmania tropica promastigotes that cause cutaneous leishmanias, and also observed the programmed cell death features. The extraction of NEO was done by hydro-distillation and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Antileishmanial activity of NEO and TQ was determined using 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the obtained results are expressed as 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50). The leishmanicidal activity of NEO and TQ was mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by in situ labelling of DNA fragments using terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) and cell cycle arrest at sub G0/G1 phase. The IC50 values were 5 µg/mL and 1.3 µg/mL, respectively. We noted a significant increase in DNA fragmentation in treated parasites with IC50 of both NEO and TQ as well as a cell cycle arrest. These results revealed that NEO and TQ possess potential antileishmanial activity that mediated high possibility by programmed cell death.
3 illus, 1 table, 55 ref
SHARMA S, DIXIT P, SAIRAM K, SAHU A N
042261 SHARMA S, DIXIT P, SAIRAM K, SAHU A N (Pharmaceutical Engineering & Technology Dep, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi - 221005, Uttar Pradesh, Email: email@example.com) : Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(10), 691-8.
Phyla nodiflora (Verbenaceae), commonly called frog fruit and locally, jal bhuti, is the traditional folk medicine accepted in the Indian Medicine as well as the Traditional system of Chinese Medicine (TCM) for various treatments viz., urinary disorder, lithiasis, knee joint pain, diuresis and swelling. In the present study, we tried to standardise crude Phyla nodiflora ethanol extract (PNE) using HPTLC and also evaluated its protection against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. HPTLC quantification of rutin and fingerprinting profile was performed. Serum kidney toxicity markers, renal tissue antioxidant and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were assessed followed by DNA fragmentation assay and histopathological examination of renal tissue. Rutin concentration in ethanol extract was found to be 5.35% w/w. In HPTLC fingerprinting 12 peaks with Rf ranges from 0.08 to 0.86 were confirmed. Serum biochemical parameters, renal tissue antioxidants and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were found to be restored. The results demonstrated the nephroprotective activity of P. nodiflora ethanol extract (400 mg/kg, p.o.) as evidenced by protection of kidneys from cisplatin induced DNA fragmentation and damage tissue architecture.
4 illus, 2 tables, 31 ref
SUMAN S K, KAMESWARAN M, DASH A
042260 SUMAN S K, KAMESWARAN M, DASH A (Radiopharmaceuticals Div, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400 085, Maharashtra, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Low dose of 131I-F(ab')2-Rituximab and 131I-Rituximab induces G1arrest and apoptosis in Raji cells (Burkitt’s lymphoma). Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(10), 680-90.
Radiolabeled fragmented F(ab')2 antibodies had shown better therapeutic efficacy than radiolabeled intact antibodies in treating cancers. In this study, we investigated the differences and similarities on the mechanism and extent of cell death in Raji cells (Burkitt’s lymphoma) in response to 370 kBq of 131I-F(ab')2-Rituximab and 131I-Rituximab up to 72 h. F(ab')2 of Rituximab was prepared and characterized by SE-HPLC and SDS-PAGE. Fragmented and intact Rituximab were radioiodinated by Chloramine-T method. Toxicity and mechanism of cell death in Raji cells in response to 131I-F(ab')2-Rituximab and 131I-Rituximab were studied by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), trypan blue exclusion, viability, apoptotic, caspase assays and cell cycle analysis. The cytotoxicity assays showed slow death of Raji cells up to 24 h in response to both 131I-F(ab')2-Rituximab and 131I-Rituximab. Cell cycle analysis at 30 h showed G1 arrest in Raji cells which led to its slow cell death up to 24 h. Elucidative assays to identify the molecular mechanism of death of G1arrested Raji cells showed apoptotic cell death at 40 h after treatment, which was validated by demonstrating caspase activation in arrested Raji cells. Toxicity studies and mechanism of cell death in Raji cells demonstrated comparable results when treated with equivalent doses (370 kBq) of radiolabeled antibodies indicating 131I-F(ab')2-Rituximab as a potential radioimmunotherapeutic agent for patients with Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
7 illus, 36 ref
SINGH G, BONS H K
042258 SINGH G, BONS H K (Fruit Science Dep, Punjab Agricultural Univ, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, Email: email@example.com) : Influence of naphthalene acetic acid on fruit setting, fruit quality and yield of Manilkara achras L. cv. Kalipatti under subtropical conditions. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(9), 661-6.
Manilkara achras L., commonly called sapota, is one of the major fruit crops commercially grown in India. Though India leads in world sapota production, the major problems in sapota are low fruit setting and yield. Hence, we studied these aspects in the commercially grown sapota cv. Kalipatti in Punjab conditions. The experiment was conducted to standardize the doses of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) for fruit setting, quality and yield of sapota at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during 2016 and 2017. The results revealed that foliar application of 100 ppm NAA at flowering and pea stage during May flowering resulted in higher fruit setting (4.9 %) and higher fruit retention (83.5 %) over other treatments including control. Similarly, higher fruit setting (18.5 %) and higher fruit retention (88.5 %) and higher yield (75.90 kg/tree) were recorded in JulyAugust flowering with foliar application of 100 ppm NAA. Fruit quality in terms of average fruit weight (104 g), TSS (22.50 oBrix) and acidity (0.20 %) was also higher in 100 ppm NAA foliar application. Significantly lower PLW (7.56 %) was also recorded in 100 ppm NAA treatment. Furthermore, it was observed that profuse flowering occurred during May, July and August months but the later flowering resulted in better crop. The study concluded that fruit setting, quality and yield in sapota cv. Kalipatti can be enhanced through foliar application of 100 ppm NAA at flowering and pea stage during July-August flowering under subtropical conditions.
2 tables, 20 ref
ZIMARE S B, MALPATHAK N P
042256 ZIMARE S B, MALPATHAK N P (Botany Dep, SavitriBai Phule Pune Univ, Pune - 411 007, Maharashtra, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Potential mevalonate pathway precursors for enhanced production of gymnemic acid. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(9), 651-5.
Gymnema sylvestre, locally called Gurmar (meaning sugar destroyer), is well known in Indian medicine for treatment of diabetes which is attributed to its triterpenoid saponin content gymnemic acid. Quantity of the gymnemic acid in is influenced by geographical and seasonal variations. Use of precursors enhances production of gymnemic acid in vitro. Here, we explored three different precursors, namely isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), squalene, and 2,3-oxidosqualene for their effect on gymnemic acid production in in vitro cultures of Gymnema sylvestre. Gymnemic acid production in shoot cultures treated with 2,3-oxidosqualene (23.31 mg g-1 DW) was highest among all three precursors studied, followed by squalene (18.12 mg g-1 DW) and IPP (15.94 mg g-1 DW). Addition of these precursors might enhance the activity of respective enzymes, such as IPP isomerase, squalene synthase (SS), squalene epoxidase (SE), and β-amyrin synthase (β-AS) which are the key enzymes in terpenoid production. Higher concentration and higher harvest duration of all three precursors reduced the production of gymnemic acid. Results have shown that addition of these precursors is effective in enhancement of gymnemic acid production and can be successfully utilized for commercial application.
2 illus, 43 ref