NEHRA K, LATHWAL P, GUPTA S, SIDHU P K, RANA J S
042254 NEHRA K, LATHWAL P, GUPTA S, SIDHU P K, RANA J S (Biotechnology Dep, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram Univ of Science & Technology, Murthal - 131 039, Sonipat, Haryana, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Agro-industrial byproducts as alternate cost-effective medium components for production of polyhydroxybutyrate. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(9), 631-42.
Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs), biodegradable plastics, having properties similar to conventional plastics, exhibit a high potential for replacing petrochemical-based non-degradable plastics. But a major obstacle in their large-scale commercial production is high production cost, one of the key factors responsible for which is the expensive carbon sources that are currently being used in their manufacturing process. The present work was aimed to study PHB production using costeffective substrates as carbon sources in the production medium. Inexpensive agro-industrial byproducts (molasses, cheese whey, wheat bran and banana peel, used in different concentrations) were explored for their potential to substitute the conventional costly substrates. Compared to glucose, all the four alternate carbon sources showed an enhancement in PHB production. The mean percent increase in PHB production was in the range of 3.81 % to 7.23 %. However, some of the bacterial isolates showed an enhancement as high as 23.32 % and 19.65 %. Highest mean PHB yield was observed in molasses (135.18 mg/mL), followed by cheese-whey (133.79 mg/mL), banana peel, and least in wheat bran based production medium. On dry weight basis, PHB accumulation in cells was observed to be 64.32 % and 64.29 % of the total dry cell weight with molasses and cheese whey, respectively, as carbon sources. FTIR spectra of extracted PHB were found to be comparable to the spectra of standard PHB, thus, confirming the chemical nature of the extracted polymer.
4 illus, 2 tables, 48 ref
SOBOT A V, SAVIC J, TRICKOVIC J F, DRAKULIC D, JOKSIC G
042252 SOBOT A V, SAVIC J, TRICKOVIC J F, DRAKULIC D, JOKSIC G (Physical Chemistry Dep, VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Republic of Serbia, Email: email@example.com) : Toxicity assessment of Gentiana lutea L. root extract and its monoterpene compounds. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(9), 609-16.
Root of Gentiana lutea commercially available as gentian root, a natural antidote for different types of poisons, possess antioxidative, immunomodulatory, cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory, and adverse, genotoxic and mutagenic effects. It has monoterpenes loganic acid, swertiamarin, gentiopicroside and sweroside as most abundant constituents. In this study, we assessed the toxicity of monoterpenes’ reactive molecular fragments using in silico prediction by VEGA-QSAR platform. Further, we compared the data obtained with in vitro geno- and cyto- toxicity testing of the above monoterpenes and the G. lutea root extract (GE), on human primary unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Viability was assessed by TB and XTT tests after 48 h treatment. DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline comet assay on unstimulated cells, whereas cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was employed on mitogen-stimulated PBMCs. Stability of compounds throughout treatment was monitored by UPLC. The observed in vitro results had highest compliance with in silico IRFMN/ISSCAN-CGX prediction model. Compounds showed high stability during experiment while treatment with single compounds reduced number of viable cells and increased DNA damage. GE treatment had toxic impact on unstimulated PBMCs but no significant genotoxic influence on mitogen-stimulated PBMCs. In summary, the mild GE effect suggests that the complexity of crude GE extract chemical composition may attenuate the toxicity of the tested monoterpenes loganic acid, swertiamarin, gentiopicroside and sweroside.
6 illus, 2 tables, 41 ref
RAJPUT M S, DWIVEDI V, AWASTHI S K
042250 RAJPUT M S, DWIVEDI V, AWASTHI S K (Biotechnology Dep, Naraina Vidyapeeth Engineering & Management Institute Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh - 208 020, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Enzymatic degradation of pyridine raffinate using response surface and artificial neural network simulation. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(8), 584-92.
Pyridine is a heterocyclic aromatic compound present in pyridine raffinate, an organic discharge of the pyridine manufacturing industry. Besides pyridine, raffinate also contains formaldehyde, picolines and phenolics. Earlier, we isolated Gamma proteobacterium from timber soil for laccase production and optimized the involved process parameters. Here, we studied the optimization of process parameters for biodegradation of pyridine raffinate with the help of mathematical modeling [central composite design with response surface methodology (CCD-RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN)]. The results predicted ANN to be a better tool for optimization of pyridine raffinate degradation. CCD was used to develop the best fit second-order polynomial quadratic regression equation. Prediction of degradation percentage for pyridine raffinate was done using the equation which was found to be 71.60 % at temperature 36.76°C, pH 7.45 and inoculum concentration 1.96 mL/10mL. The predicted response was experimentally validated in the wet lab to verify the degradation efficiency. The outcome was 65.76±2 %, further confirmed by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). The result of GC-FID () data showed no trace of pyridine (Area 0 %) which was reduced from initial area of 1.38 % pyridine in raffinate sample.
6 illus, 3 tables, 23 ref
UDAYAN A, THOMAS J, SREEKUMAR N
042249 UDAYAN A, THOMAS J, SREEKUMAR N (Biotechnology Dep, Kalasalingam Academy for Research and Education, Krishnankoil - 626126, Tamil Nadu, Email: email@example.com) : Chromium (VI) biosorption using novel biosorbents from Calotropis gigantea. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(8), 578-83.
Biosorption of heavy metals using plant based materials contributes a significant role in reducing environmental pollution. Here, we investigated removal of hexavalent chromium metal [Cr (VI)] from an aqueous solution by alkali treated novel biosorbent prepared from Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand. ex W.T. Aiton leaves and flower. Batch studies were conducted to examine the process parameters. The effect of pH, biomass dosage, initial metal ion concentration, contact time was evaluated keeping temperature and agitation speed constant. As much as 70 % removal of Cr (VI) was observed with a leaf biomass dosage of 4 g/L at pH 2.0 and initial metal ion concentration of 1.0 ppm. Data obtained from the experiment were used to calculate the equilibrium data with two variable isothermal models. Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models suited the process for leaves and petals, respectively. Pseudo second order reaction suited in the kinetic study. The data obtained from the study suggests that biosorbents derived from C. gigantea has effective chromium biosorption capability. The results indicate that C. gigantea could be used as an efficient, cost effective and environmental friendly biosorbent for the treatment of chromium contaminated water bodies.
2 illus, 2 tables, 20 ref
PHUKON L C, ABEDIN M M, CHOURASIA R, SAHOO D, PARAMESWARAN B, RAI A K
042247 PHUKON L C, ABEDIN M M, CHOURASIA R, SAHOO D, PARAMESWARAN B, RAI A K (Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development, Tadong - 737 102, Sikkim, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Production of xylanase under submerged fermentation from Bacillus firmus HS11 isolated from Sikkim Himalayan region. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(8), 563-70.
Xylanase producing microorganisms isolated from high altitude soil show activity at broad window of temperature, and can have variety of industrial applications. Here, we explored production of xylanase under submerged fermentation from Bacillus firmus HS11 isolated from Sikkim Himalayan region. We isolated 472 bacterial strains high altitude soil samples (1120-4272 m) from Sikkim and screened for xylanase production. Among them five strains that showed higher xylanase activity were identified by 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis. Comparatively, Bacillus firmus HS11 showed highest activity at 10, 37 and 50°C, and was chosen for optimization experiment. B. firmus HS11 showed xylanase activity of 3.35 U/mg of protein at 37°C and retained 32.43 % activity at 10°C and had 79.82 % higher activity at 50°C. Optimization of nutrient composition for submerged fermentation of B. firmus HS11 was carried out by combination of Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. The optimized media component for xylanase production by submerged fermentation by B. firmus HS11 is beechwood xylan 0.8 % (w/v), MgSO4 0.04 % (w/v), CaCl20.04 % (w/v), peptone 0.1 % (w/v), NaCl 0.3 % (w/v) and yeast extracts 0.01% (w/v), resulting in enhancement of xylanase production by 7.4 folds. Xylanase having activity at broad range of temperature including lower temperature can have application in food industry.
5 illus, 2 tables, 29 ref
AGGARWAL S, SINGH D V
042243 AGGARWAL S, SINGH D V (Biotechnology Dep, Central Univ of South Bihar, Gaya - 824 236, Bihar, Email: email@example.com) : Efflux pumps and biofilm formation by both methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(8), 527-38.
Staphylococcus aureus is the primary cause of nosocomial infections. It produces potent toxins and causes superficial lesions, systemic diseases, and several toxaemic syndromes. In this study, we determined the role of efflux pump in conferring resistance to fluoroquinolones in the biofilm of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains. We selected five strains of S. aureus comprising three methicillin sensitive strains, including ATCC25923, and two strains of methicillin resistant S. aureus. Thioridazine, chlorpromazine, carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone and reserpine showed activity against MSSA strains. Whereas, thioridazine and chlorpromazine were active against MRSAstrains too. Thioridazine and chlorpromazine showed a significant decrease in biofilm formation of MSSA strain 2493, and MRSA strain UC1079 compared to the control strain ATCC25923. Thioridazine showed a similar effect on MSSA strain N297214 and MRSA strain N307002. Four to eight-fold increase was found in the expression of efflux pump genes with ethidium bromide, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin in these strains. However, a decrease in the expression of norB, norC, abcA and mepA was observed in MSSA, and MRSA strains with thioridazine, chlorpromazine and naringenin. This study, thus demonstrate that the major facilitator superfamily, multidrug and toxin compound extrusion, and ATP binding cassette family of efflux pumps play an essential role in developing antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. It is the first report on existence of efflux pump genes in biofilm beside antibiotic resistance for fluoroquinolones in MRSA and MSSA strains, which need further characterization.
6 illus, 4 tables, 43 ref
SAXENA S, KUMAR S, TIWARI A K, RAMTEKE P W
042241 SAXENA S, KUMAR S, TIWARI A K, RAMTEKE P W (Biological Sciences Dep, Sam Higginbottom Univ of Agriculture, Prayagraj - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Enhanced intracellular translocation and cytokine profiling of gold nanoparticles conjugated with human papilloma virus based (HPV-R9) cell-penetrating peptide in cancer cells. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(8), 515-21.
Functionalized gold nanoparticles are emerging as a promising nanocarrier for targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules. The present study describes synthesis, characterization and intracellular delivery of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with L1 protein of human papilloma virus peptide (HPV) derived cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugated with R9. HPV-R9 cell penetrating peptide conjugated with AuNPs (fAuNPs) was characterized using UV-visible and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential. The cellular uptake of fAuNPs was studied in Vero cells using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The fAuNPs displayed reversible low intracellular aggregation, ~20 % cytotoxicity but high efficiency and stability in Vero cells. The cytokines study by real-time PCR was performed in 4T1 cells of the IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-, found to be upregulated in comparison to control. The functionalized gold nanoparticles cell penetrating peptide show good intracellular transport to thecellular destinations.Results of this study demonstrate that cell penetrating peptide can be used along with gold nanoparticles for therapeutics application, particularly cancer.
7 illus, 29 ref
SHAH A V, VARJANI S, SRIVASTAVA V K, BHATNAGAR A
042240 SHAH A V, VARJANI S, SRIVASTAVA V K, BHATNAGAR A (Sankalchand Patel Univ, Visnagar - 384 315, Gujarat, Email: email@example.com) : Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) as Sustainable Technology — Challenges and Perspectives. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(8), 508-14.
In sustainable treatment of wastewater, in addition to treatment performance, other aspects viz. energy utilization, recycling of wastewater and social issues also play vital role in evaluation of the sustainability. It is useful for achieving zero liquid discharge from industries. Soil biotechnology (SBT) is a type of biological treatment that plays major part in zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology. ZLD is used for conversion of organic matter present in wastes into various grades of products for soil application and turns wastewater to cleaner water in the presence of selective geophagus earthworms, bacterial culture and formulated soil. SBT reduces the level of various pollutants in industrial wastewater viz. biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammonium nitrate, phosphates, nitrogen, suspended solids, odour, colour and other undesired organisms. This review briefly discusses the need for sustainable development in treatment of wastewater. It also provides an updated scientific literature on zero liquid discharge systems in industries including challenges and perspectives.
2 illus, 52 ref
SEKAR N, SAMAK R, PATIL S, GHORPADE N, ABILASH V G
042238 SEKAR N, SAMAK R, PATIL S, GHORPADE N, ABILASH V G (Biomedical Sciences Dep, VIT, Vellore - 632 014, Tamil Nadu, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome in the South Indian cohort. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(7), 493-7.
The polycystic ovarian syndrome is the utmost common endocrinopathy state in women. It is related to both reproductive and metabolic disorders. The MTHFR gene associated with the ovarian follicular action encodes the 5-MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) enzyme, tangled in folate metabolism. MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism declines the enzyme activity and thus folate deficit and increases the level of homocysteine, which affects the progress of oocytes. Here, we evaluated the association of MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism with Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in the South Indian cohort of women. About 129 PCOS women with following Rotterdam criteria and 90 women controls were studied. PCR-RFLP technique was carried out on all PCOS women in this study. Dissimilarities in hormone levels in PCOS patients were detected. MTHFR gene polymorphism CC, CT, TT genotype was found to be 74, 16, 9.30 % in patients correspondingly. However, in controls, it was 44.4, 24, 31 %, respectively. A substantial difference was detected in the genotype frequency distributions among the patients and controls. Also, allele frequency was shown as 82.95 % C allele and 17.83 % T allele and 56.67 %, 43.33 % for C, and T allele in controls correspondingly. Our results indicate a possible association and suggest that MTHFR C677T polymorphism can be used as a potential biomarker for PCOS progress in the South Indian women.
3 illus, 1 table, 31 ref
KHADE H D, HAJARE S N, SARMA K S S, GAUTAM S
042236 KHADE H D, HAJARE S N, SARMA K S S, GAUTAM S (Food Technology Div, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai – 400 085, Maharashtra, Email: email@example.com) : A combination process including ionizing radiation for hygienization and shelf life extension of leafy vegetables. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(7), 474-86.
Raw leafy greens are commonly associated with global foodborne outbreaks due to pathogenic contaminants. In the current study, greens, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and mint (Mentha spicata L.) showed presence of coliforms (including E. coli) along with other aerobic microbes, yeast and molds. These vegetables mostly consumed in raw or culinary purpose, and hence increase the chances of food borne illnesses. Moreover, the leafy greens are perishable. In this context, we optimized a combination process including radiation treatment to achieve hygienization and shelf life extension of these leafy green vegetables. The combination treatment comprising potable water wash, chlorination (NaOCl-200 ppm) followed by irradiation (2 kGy using electron beam or gamma) was developed, and the processed samples showed keeping quality up to 15 days at 4-6C, whereas control samples spoiled within two days. The treatment resulted in coliform count below detection level while retaining the nutritional, phenolic content and organoleptic qualities. Thus, the combination treatment could ensure safety, keeping quality enhancement of perishable leafy greens and to control global food outbreaks. Electron beam over gamma processing found to be a commercial viable option due to its high throughput and equal efficacy in microbial decontamination.
4 illus, 3 tables, 45 ref
KOMMULA S R, CHEKKILLA U K, GANUGULA R, PATIL M A, VADAKATTU S S, MYADARA S, PUTCHA U K, RAMAVAT R N, PONDAY L R, PALLA S ET AL
042234 KOMMULA S R, CHEKKILLA U K, GANUGULA R, PATIL M A, VADAKATTU S S, MYADARA S, PUTCHA U K, RAMAVAT R N, PONDAY L R, PALLA S ET AL (Lipid Chemistry Div, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Telangana, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Garlic ameliorates long-term pre-diabetes induced retinal abnormalities in high fructose fed rat model. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(7), 452-60.
Retinopathy is one of the micro vascular complications of diabetes and can also be observed in pre-diabetic state. However, there are only limited studies available on the pathophysiology of retinopathy in pre-diabetic state and its preventive strategies. In this study, we investigated the retinal functional, structural and molecular alterations using high fructose (HF) induced pre-diabetic rat model and also the protective role of garlic. Feeding of HF to Wistar NIN (WNIN) rats had developed insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) by three months, while retinal functional abnormalities by ten months as evidenced by decrease of Electroretinogram (ERG) scotopic, photopic b-wave amplitudes, oscillatory potentials (OPs) when compared to controls. Supplementation of garlic (3 %) to HF+G group rats had marginally protected these changes. Elevated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), aldose reductase (AR) and decreased rhodopsin (Rho) in HF group rats as evidenced by immunohistochemistry, immunoblot methods, which were further supported by gene expression studies, indicate the initiation of retinal abnormalities. Increased immunefluorescence signal of carboxymethyl lysine (CML-KLH) and 4-hydroxynanoenol (4-HNE) in retina of HF group rats indicate the association of glycation and oxidative stress, respectively. Early intervention of garlic to HF+G group rats attenuated retinal functional, structural, and molecular abnormalities.
4 illus, 2 tables, 44 ref
YADAV M, CHATURVEDI G, JHA N
042230 YADAV M, CHATURVEDI G, JHA N (Zoology Dep, Maitreyi Coll, Chanakyapuri, Delhi, Email: email@example.com) : Effects of leaf extracts of selected medicinal plants on blood against hypotonic solution by measuring optical density: An in vitro study. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(6), 420-5.
The medicinal plant leaf extracts alter the morphology of the cellular components of blood, especially RBCs. However, information on biochemical changes occurring during these events in vitro is lacking. Here, we studied the effect of medicinal plant [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem), Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Indian Gooseberry or Amla) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Holi basil or Tulsi)] leaf extracts as against the hypotonic solution by measuring the optical density of blood at various wavelengths at 0 and 30 min. The blood, exposed to hypotonic solution, showed cellular degradation and higher protein metabolism; higher glucose metabolism and oxidative cellular damage as well as higher oxygen absorption as compared to test samples. Among the three leaf extracts studied, the Amla extract treatment had comparatively more protective role for cellular components of the blood as against hypotonic solution. However, Tulsi extract significantly reduced hemolysis, heme catabolism and redox stress in RBCs. Tulsi also increased glucose metabolism indicating its antidiabetic property. To conclude, Amla leaf extract significantly reversed the effects of the hypotonic solution on the cellular components while Tulsi extract exhibited therapeutic role in maintaining homeostasis of cellular components in blood.
1 illus, 1 table, 41 ref
DASH P K, GUPTA P, PANWAR B S, RAI R
042229 DASH P K, GUPTA P, PANWAR B S, RAI R (ICAR-National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, Pusa Campus, New Delhi -110012, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Isolation, cloning and characterization of phlB gene from an Indian strain of Gram negative soil bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(6), 412-9.
Phloroglucinol (PHL) or 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is a polyketide compound that exhibits broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal properties against soil-borne plant pathogens. It is produced by gram negative bacterium Pseudomonas (fluorescent Pseudomonad) which renders them a potential biological control agent. The process of PHL production is accomplished by a well coordinated activity of four (phlABCD) genes arranged in an operon. All four genes are essential and indispensable for biosynthesis of DAPG from precursor malonyl CoA. Here, we report cloning and analysis of phlB gene from an Indian strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Further, we predicted the structure of PHLB protein and analyzed its intrinsic details. Stereo-chemical properties were analyzed by Ramachandran plot and secondary structure was retrieved by PDB sum. Our study provides insight into the structure of PHLB protein and revealed that though Pseudomonas PHLB lacks conserved motifs and domains it is indispensable for monoacetyl phloroglucinol (MAPG) synthesis.
7 illus, 38 ref
ZHANG F, SAPKOTA S, NEUPANE A, YU J, WANG Y, ZHU K, LU F, HUANG R, ZOU J
042228 ZHANG F, SAPKOTA S, NEUPANE A, YU J, WANG Y, ZHU K, LU F, HUANG R, ZOU J (Shenyang Agricultural Univ, Liaoning, China, Email: email@example.com) : Effect of salt stress on growth and physiological parameters of sorghum genotypes at an early growth stage. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(6), 404-11.
Physiological regulation affects plant salinity tolerance. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of salt stress on the physiological regulation in sorghum at early growth stage. Two sorghum genotypes (GT), Bayeqi (salt-tolerant) and PL212 (salt-sensitive), were grown in an artificial climate chamber with a nutrition solution containing 0，80, 160, and 240 mM NaCl. Results showed that salt-tolerant sorghum had enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increased stress-related osmolytes including free amino acids, and reducing and soluble sugars. Furthermore, ion regulation plays an important role in the osmotic adjustment. Results also suggest that K+ /Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios are associated with tolerance under salt-stressed environments and higher Na+ and lower K+ and Ca2+ concentrations are deleterious to sorghum growth. As a result, under salt-stressed environments, the salt-tolerant sorghum GT had better growth performance than salt-sensitive sorghum GT, which was evidenced by a greater plant high, leaf area, leaf fresh weight, and root fresh weight. Overall, under salt-stressed environments, the salt-tolerant sorghum GT had better growth performance including yield than salt-sensitive sorghum GT, which was evidenced by a greater plant high, leaf area, leaf fresh weight, and root fresh weight.
4 illus, 3 tables, 45 ref
AHMAD S, SABA S, ASIF H M
042227 AHMAD S, SABA S, ASIF H M (The Islamia Univ of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of ethanolic extract of Centaurea solstitialis L. and its different fractions. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(6), 396-403.
Resistance to conventional antimicrobial regimes is one of the issues of concern in healthcare and it drives the need for development of new antimicrobial agents. Medicinal plants, as rich source of biochemical and bioactive compounds, serve as potential source for new drugs. Here, we evaluated the ethanolic extract of Centaurea solstitialis L. and its different fractions (n-hexane, choloroform and n-butanol soluble fraction) for antimicrobial, antioxidant and enzymes inhibitory activities. Antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria species were determined by using agar well diffusion and 96-wells microplate methods. Similarly, antifungal activity against two fungal strains was also evaluated by agar well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity analyzed by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals and acetylcholinesterase, butrylcholinesterase and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was determined at 10 µg/mL and 1.0 mg/mL concentrations. Results revealed that the ethanolic extract of C. solstitialis and its different fractions possesses significant (P<0.05) antibacterial activity and effective against fungi Aspergillus niger and Macrophomina phaseolina. Significant (P<0.05) DPPH scavenging activity (88.52±0.23 %) among all fractions was noted. n-Butanol fraction showed significant acetylcholinesterase (78.55±0.76 %) and butrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (78.1±0.41 %) with IC50 values of 54.6±0.39 µg/mL and 211.9±0.15 µg/mL, respectively. Maximum chymotrypsin inhibition activity was shown by crude ethanolic extract (87.76±1.17) with IC50 value of 38.23±0.75 µg/mL. It is concluded that C. solstitialis extract and its fractions possess significant antimicrobial, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity.
2 illus, 3 tables, 42 ref
GOPAL G R, LAKSHMI S, NAIR A J, GANGAPRASAD A, SUDHAKARAN P R, MURALEEDHARAN D, NAIR G M
042226 GOPAL G R, LAKSHMI S, NAIR A J, GANGAPRASAD A, SUDHAKARAN P R, MURALEEDHARAN D, NAIR G M (Biotechnology Dep, Kerala Univ, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala - 695 034, Email: email@example.com) : Antiproliferative effects of total alkaloid extract of roots of Chassalia curviflora (Wall.) Thwaites on cancer cell lines. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(6), 389-95.
Chassalia curviflora is used in folklore medicines for treating several ailments and infections owing to its antiinflammatory properties. Though the plant has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory antihepatotoxic and analgesic activities, its anticancer potential has not been studied so far. In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of the total alkaloids isolated from the roots of C. curviflora. The total alkaloid was validated by MTT assay in three cancer cell lines, such as liver cancer cell line-A549, breast cancer cell line-MCF-7 and ovarian cancer cell line -HeLa. Significant antiproliferative effect (IC50 value 3.59±0.14*** µg/mL) was observed in A549 cells, and was taken for further studies. Cell cycle analysis showed that the cells got arrested in sub G0 phase and annexin V-FITC assay revealed that 27.4 % cells were in early apoptosis and 7 % cells in late apoptosis. The study revealed that the total alkaloids of Chassalia curviflora roots possess significant antiproliferative and apoptotic act
5 illus, 1 table, 32 ref
KUMARI A, KUMAR A, TOMAR P, BARO D, GREWAL S, SANGWAN M L
042223 KUMARI A, KUMAR A, TOMAR P, BARO D, GREWAL S, SANGWAN M L (Animal Biotechnology Dep, Lala Lajpat Rai Univ of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana) : MHC-DRB1 exon 2 polymorphism and its association with faecal egg count of Haemonchus contortus in Munjal sheep. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(5), 365-9.
Haemonchosis is an important disease of small ruminants. Anthelmenthic resistance has instigated the demand of other viable method for control of gastrointestinal parasite. Here, we investigated ovine major histocompatibility complex class II (Ovar MHC II) DRB1 exon 2 polymorphism and its association with faecal egg count (FEC) of Haemonchus contortus in Munjal population of sheep. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 46 lambs between 6-7 months of age. The polymorphism in DRB1 gene was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. PCR products of exon 2 of DRB1 gene were digested with HaeII, BsaHI and NciI restriction enzymes. Fragment of the DRB1 gene comprising 9 bp of the 5' intron and 270 bp of entire exon 2 was successfully amplified. On digestion of 279 bp PCR product with NciI, three genotypes viz. A1A1, A2A2 and A1A2 were found with allele frequencies 0.65 and 0.35. HaeII enzyme revealed three genotypes A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 with allele frequencies of A1 and A2 were 0.42 and 0.58. BsaHI enzyme also generated three genotypes A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 with allele frequencies of A1 and A2 was 0.42 and 0.58. We were able to found polymorphism in DRB1 gene but no association could be established between genotypes generated by different restriction enzymes and FEC of H. contortus in Munjal sheep.
4 illus, 1 table, 34 ref
BHARATHIDASAN V, RAJESH N, MURUGESAN P, SIVARAJ S
042222 BHARATHIDASAN V, RAJESH N, MURUGESAN P, SIVARAJ S (Annamalai Univ, Parangipettai - 608 502, Tamil Nadu, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Microscopic visualization of regeneration in scale worm Paralepidonotus sp. (Grube, 1878). Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(5), 360-4.
Regeneration of damaged or lost body parts is an ecologically important process in the animal realm. Like many other annelids, segmented worms and bearded scale worm, Paralepidonotus sp. is capable of regenerating its anterior elytra and posterior body segments and terminal structures that are lost due to amputation. In aquaculture industry, scale worms have importance as common live feed. In this context, we studied the morphology and organization of tissues in Paralepidonotus sp. populations which have ability to regenerate the anterior elytra and posterior region. The study revealed that the process of blastema formation in the anterior (Elytra) and posterior segments of Paralepidonotus sp. was normal and got regenerated to its original state during 9th to 12th day of experiment, and thus this species can be used for mass scale production to cater to the demand of aquaculture as suitable live feed for feeding the brooders both in shrimp and ornamental Aquaculture.
4 illus, 1 table, 39 ref
SUBRAMANIAN S, SAVANUR G
042221 SUBRAMANIAN S, SAVANUR G (Neurochemistry Dep, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences, Bangalore - 560 029, Karnataka, Email: email@example.com) : Antibodies directed to the phospho-tau peptide (residues 111-137) dissociate tau oligomers and reduce the spatial memory deficits in non-transgenic tauopathy model rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(5), 355-9.
n dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type, characterized by the deposits of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques with concomitant deterioration in spatial memory and other cognitive functions. Till date, although no cure is available for AD, a few treatment options offer help in reducing the symptoms. In the present study, the sequence 111-137 in the distal N-terminal charge transition region of tau, harbouring the pathologically relevant phospho-serine (pSer 113) and phosphothreonine (pThr 123) (111TPpSLEDEAAGHVpTQARMVSKSKD GTGS 137) was selected as a potential immunotherapeutic peptide. Polyclonal anti-peptide antibodies raised in rabbits effectively dissociated the oligomers/aggregates of recombinant human tau in vitro. Administration of affinity purified anti-peptide antibodies to the okadaic acid induced tauopathy model rats resulted in a significant progress in spatial memory functions in Barnes maze task with concomitant reduction in p-tau levels in the hippocampal homogenates. Thus, targeting the phospho-residue sequence 111-137 in tau may be therapeutically relevant for AD and other related tauopathies. These antibodies may also have a clinical value in terms of immunosassay development for quantitation of pathology associated pSer113 and pThr 123 in AD samples.
1 illus, 1 table, 24 ref
PREETHI S, PATHY R
042220 PREETHI S, PATHY R (Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), Vellore - 632 014, Tamil Nadu, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Exploring prospective forested wetland — Actinomycetes for biodeterioration of genotoxic textile azo dyes. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(5), 344-54.
Disposal of synthetic textile dye effluents into waterbodies is a major cause of water pollution and undesirable toxicity on aquatic organisms affecting their metabolic and hormonal cycles. Moreover, it affects human health significantly by carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Therefore, this study targets the biotreatment of azo dyes as a green eco-friendly tool using the tropical mangrove actinomycete, Streptomyces coelicolor strain SPR7, that manifests versatile decolourization of azo dyes. The highest decolourization rate (97.5 %) was achieved using Methylene Blue (MB) within 72 h under the optimal conditions. Molecular docking analysis was accomplished by Autodock software, to discern docking score, binding pocket residues and interaction of azoreductase, DyP-type peroxidase and laccase with MB. The in vitro findings were highly correlating with in silico appraisals. UV-vis spectrometry, HPLC and FTIR were validating the MB biodecolourization and degradation. Interestingly, the strain detoxified MB viz. further validated by the Vigna radiata toxicity assay. Supplementarily, azo reductase was assessed to be the key biocatalyst for decolourization, while other two enzymes were involved in further mineralization of decolourized metabolites. Henceforth, a coupled in silico cum biological dye deterioration is a booming strategy for an economical, eco-friendly and time saving bioremediation to reuse textile wastewater.
7 illus, 3 tables, 43 ref
AHLAWAT J, SEHRAWAT A R, CHOUDHARY R, YADAV S K
042219 AHLAWAT J, SEHRAWAT A R, CHOUDHARY R, YADAV S K (Botany Dep, Maharshi Dayanand Univ Rohtak, Haryana - 124 001, Email: email@example.com) : Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles eclipse fungal and bacterial contamination in micropropagation of Capparis decidua (FORSK.) Edgew: A substitute to toxic substances. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(5), 336-43.
Microbial contamination is a serious challenge in plant tissue culture, particularly in micropropagation of threatened and rare medicinally important plants for conservation purpose. Use of antibiotics exhibit harmful effects on plants, and continuous use makes bacteria more resistant. Also, chemicals used to control such contaminations are either toxic to the explant or have limited efficiency. Though nanobiotechnology offers an effective alternate to deal with the bacterial and fungal contamination, chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles has limitations and found to be toxic, flammable and hard to get disposed. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing plant extracts, being environment friendly, cost-effective, and single step, is gaining attention as better alternative method. In this study, the green synthesised silver nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy (462.73 nm, 0.473 Abs) and Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM). The fruit extract of Capparis decidua served as an environmentally benign reducing agent and the phytochemicals of the extract as non-toxic agent to stabilize the AgNP (FTIR) upholding its significance as an eco-friendly approach compared to hazardous chemicals. The nano size (1.5-15 nm) makes the green synthesized AgNPs a better antimicrobial agent allowing easy diffusion into the cells. Evaluation of decontamination as well as the survival rate of the explants was monitored using the explants (shoot tip and nodal segment) immersion in three different concentrations of AgNP solution (100, 300, and 500 mg/L) and controlled by 0.1 % mercuric chloride treatment demonstrating promising decrease in decontamination. However, the survival was expedient excluding immersion in 100 mg/L for 20 or 30 min. The MS media supplementation by AgNP solution (50, 100, 300 and 500 mg/L), controlled by 70 % ethanol treatment divulged the superior decontamination rate at 150 mg/L of AgNPs (90.2 % for bacteria and 94.4 % for fungal contamination) with 80.5 % survival. The increased concentration gave 100 % bacterial and 98.6 % fungal decontamination but a reduced survival percent (68.5 %). This work potentially showed that nanosized AgNPs could serve as an appropriate antimicrobial substitute to chemicals being innocuous to the explant regeneration.
7 illus, 34 ref
KAPILDEV G, CHINNATHAMBI A, SIVANANDHAN G, RAJESH M, JEYARAJ M, SELVARAJ N, ALHARBI S A, GANAPATHI A
042218 KAPILDEV G, CHINNATHAMBI A, SIVANANDHAN G, RAJESH M, JEYARAJ M, SELVARAJ N, ALHARBI S A, GANAPATHI A (Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Dep, Bharathidasan Univ, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024, Tamil Nadu, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Meta-Topolin and β-cyclodextrin enhance multiple shoot and root production in black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Indian J Exp Biol 2020, 58(5), 314-22.
The recalcitrant nature of black gram is the major constraint of in vitro regeneration and agrobacterium- mediated genetic transformation, to overcome this, a productive shoot regeneration protocol has been achieved in black gram cultivar T9 using 7-day old cotyledonary node explants excised from in vitro- raised black gram seedlings using meta-topolin. An aromatic cytokinin, meta-topolin along with BA (1.5+0.5 mg/L) in 0.50 strength MS medium with 1.5 % (w/v) sucrose exhibited a maximum number of multiple shoots (32.0±0.37 shoots/explant) at the end of 6 weeks of culture. The shoots were elongated in (6.40±0.50 cm/shoot) in MS medium supplemented with GA3 (2.0 mg/L). A maximum number of roots (9.60±0.50/shoot) and root length (11.20±0.73 cm/shoot) were obtained in combination with β-cyclodextrin (a cyclic oligosaccharide; 1.5 mg/L) and IBA (1.5 mg/L). The rooted plantlets were hardened and acclimatized with least mortality rate of 2 % in pot mixture consisting red soil:sand:farm yard manure (FYM) (2:1:1) and grown in green house with 85 % relative humidity. Ploidy levels were analyzed using flow cytometry which confessed the chromosomal stability in invitro raised plants similar to parent plants. This protocol may be useful for producing transgenic black gram with desirable agro-traits in Indian cultivars.
4 illus, 5 tables, 26 ref
SINGH P , SINGH V , SINGH RB
044094 SINGH P , SINGH V , SINGH RB (Zoology Dep, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Univ, Khandari Campus, Agra, Uttar Pradesh) : Impact of Supreme Court orders on air pollution pollutants (No2, So2 and SPM) level of Agra city India. Int J Multidiscip Res Dev 2020, 7(1), 157-60.
Substances are put into air by the activity of mankind into concentration sufficient to cause the harmful effect to health, vegetables, property on interfere with the enjoyment of his property. Present investigation mainly deals with the constant mean model and it found that the air pollution is decreasing in Agra city due to the impact of Supreme Court intervention in 1996. All assumptions of constant mean model are lied and observations are generally uncorrelated. The application of constant mean model on the air pollution data of NO2, SO2 and SPM level of Agra city, U.P. (India).
5 tables, 24 ref
KAWLE P, KAMBLE K
042134 KAWLE P, KAMBLE K (Shri Radhakisan Laxminarayan Toshniwal Coll of Science, Akola - 444 001, Email: email@example.com) : Synthesis of pyrazines and imidazoles using lemon juice (Citrus limon) as a recyclable catalyst. Indian J Chem Sec B 2020, 59B(12), 1887-92.
One-pot four component synthesis of 2,5,6-triaryl pyrazines, 1,2,4,5-tetraaryl imidazoles and 2,2,4,5-tetraaryl imidazoles have been achieved from benzoin, aryl amine, ammonium acetate and aryl ketone /aryl aldehydes using lemon juice (Citrus limon) as an ecofriendly catalyst in good yield under mild conditions. The antibacterial action exhibited by the synthesized compounds against clinical isolates obtained from urinary tract catheters of infected patients is close to the standard drug tetracycline. Recovery of lemon juice after completion of reaction eliminates the need to handle side products, making this process more safe and user friendly.
1 illus, 4 tables, 27 ref
MATHELA C S, BISHT B S
042129 MATHELA C S, BISHT B S (Chemistry Dep, Govt. PG Coll Berinag, Pithoragarh - 262 531, Uttarakhand, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Composition of a new chemotype of Senecio chrysanthemoides DC.. Indian J Chem Sec B 2020, 59B(11), 1745-8.
1,10β-epoxy-6-oxo-furanoeremophilane 1 (21.8 %) along with furanoligularenone 2, germacrene D 3, selin-11-en-4α-ol 4 and caryophyllene oxide 5 have been identified in Senecio chrysanthemoides DC. of the Garhwal region of Himalaya at an altitude of 3600 m. 1,10β-epoxy-6-oxo-furanoeremophilane 1 has not been reported in Senecio chrysanthemoides DC. but reported in the other species of the genus Senecio. Presence of compounds 1-5 and absence of previously reported β-thujone and 6-hydroxy-p-menth-4(5)-en-3-one makes it a new chemotype within the genus Senecio.
1 illus, 27 ref
DESAI N C, JOSHI S B
042128 DESAI N C, JOSHI S B (Chemistry Dep, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar Univ, Bhavnagar, Gujarat - 364 001, Email: email@example.com ) : A concise synthesis of pyrazole clubbed imidazolone compounds as antimicrobial agents. Indian J Chem Sec B 2020, 59B(11), 1738-44.
We reported an efficient route for the synthesis of pyrazole clubbed imidazolone compounds. The products were characterized by standard techniques like IR,1H and 13C NMR, and LC-MS. They were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against several strains of bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. pyogenes) and fungi (C. albicans, A. niger,and A. clavatus) using broth dilution method. Compounds3j (-2-NO2),3r (-4-Br), and 3i (-2-OCH3) showed significant antimicrobial activity.
1 table, 13 ref
CHANYSHEVA A R, ZORIN V V
042114 CHANYSHEVA A R, ZORIN V V (Biochemistry and Technology of Microbiological Industries Dep, Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ, Ufa, Russia, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Enantioselective bioreduction of heptan-2-one and octan-2-one catalyzed by Daucus carota cells. Indian J Chem Sec B 2020, 59B(09), 1381-3.
Synthesis of enantiomerically pure (2S)-(+)-heptan-2-ol and (2S)-(+)-octan-2-ol by bioreduction of heptan-2-one and octan-2-one using Daucus carota cells has been studied. Optimization of bioreduction conditions has been carried out in the presence of various exogenous reducing agents (ethanol, isopropanol, glucose). Conditions allowing to obtain (2S)-(+)-heptan-2-ol with 91 % yield and optical purity 98 % ee and (2S)-(+)-octan-2-ol in 95 % yield and > 99 % ee have been found.
ARUN K G, SHARANYA C S, ABHITHAJ J, SADASIVAN C
042106 ARUN K G, SHARANYA C S, ABHITHAJ J, SADASIVAN C (Biotechnology and Microbiology Dep, Kannur Univ, Kannur - 670 661, Email: email@example.com) : In silico and in vitro validation of some benzimidazole derivatives as adenosine deaminase inhibitors. Indian J Chem Sec B 2020, 59B(08), 1175-82.
Benzimidazole nucleus considered as an important scaffold for developing drug candidates against a wide spectrum of diseases. Adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme present in purine metabolic pathway, has a significant role in inflammatory and malignant diseases and hence it is considered as a major target for drug development. The present study investigates ADA inhibitory potential of selected benzimidazole derivatives by using in silico and in vitro methods. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations have been carried out to identify potential ADA activesite binders from benzimidazole derivatives. Compounds having strong binding affinities were selected for enzyme inhibition assays and fluorescent binding studies. The results showed that the pyridinyl and butyl derivatives of benzimidazole possess significant ADA inhibitory potential.The study proposes these compounds can be used as potent candidates for developing ADA inhibitor drugs.
11 illus, 3 tables, 21 ref
RAMYA S, TEJA K S, HARIPRASAD K S, PRAVEENA G, ZEHRA A, TIWARI A K, PRAKASHAM R S, RAJU B C
042098 RAMYA S, TEJA K S, HARIPRASAD K S, PRAVEENA G, ZEHRA A, TIWARI A K, PRAKASHAM R S, RAJU B C (Organic Synthesis & Process Chemistry Dep, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad - 500 007, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Condensation of nicotinaldehydes with phenylethanones: A convenient synthesis and biological activities of chalcones. Indian J Chem Sec B 2020, 59B(07), 991-1000.
Claisen-Schmidt condensation of nicotinaldehydes 1a-e with various phenylethanones 2a-d in the presence of base at room temperature have provided chalcones 3a-t. All the synthesized compounds have been evaluated for their antimicrobial, free-radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Compounds 3d and 3h have been identified as potent anti-fungal and moderate anti-bacterial agents. Compounds 3c, 3h, 3k-m and 3q have shown α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
3 tables, 24 ref
TATIPAMUL V B, KETHA A
042095 TATIPAMUL V B, KETHA A (Duy Tan Univ, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam, Email: email@example.com) : Manglicolous lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale: Isolation, characterization and biological evaluation. Indian J Chem Sec B 2020, 59B(06), 856-61.
The chemical examination of the ethanolic extract of manglicolous lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Pt-Et) has resulted in isolation of six known metabolites, i.e., methyl-β-orcinolcarboxylate (1), isolecanoric acid (2), methyl-2,6-dihydroxy-4-methylbenzoate (3), haematommic acid (4), ethyl haematommate (5), and atranorin (6). All the isolates 1-6 and Pt-Et have been screened against DPPH and superoxide free radicals, six different cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, SW620, HeLa, FADU, A549, SKOV3) and one normal human cell line (NHME). Compound 3 exhibits prominent inhibition of superoxide free radical, which appears to be better than that of the standard (ascorbic acid) with an IC50 value of 26.0 µg/mL. From the SRB assay results, it is observed that the better IC50 values have been obtained from 4 and 5 on HeLa, FADU, and A549, respectively. In addition, all the tested samples show low cell lysis on NHME, which indicates low toxicity. Consequently, the outcomes revealed that P. tinctorum could be a new source to treat oxidative stress and cancer. This work is the first report of antioxidant and cytotoxicity studies on the isolated metabolites 1-6.
2 illus, 13 ref
JADHAV R P, PATIL A A, BOBADE V D
042090 JADHAV R P, PATIL A A, BOBADE V D (Chemistry Dep, HPT Arts & RYK Science Coll, Nashik - 422 005, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 4-substituted thiazol-2-yl hydrazine derivatives of 1-(2,6-difluorobenzyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbaldehyde. Indian J Chem Sec B 2020, 59B(05), 716-23.
The manuscript reports synthesis and antimicrobial activity of several novel heterocyclic compounds in which 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole synthesized via click chemistry approach and 4-aryl (5a-h) and 4-piperazinyl amide (7a-e) or 4-aryl amide (8a-e) substituted thiazole rings, are bridged through hydrazine linkage. Structures of all the synthesized compounds have been elucidated using 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectral analysis. In vitro antimicrobial screening of the target compounds has been carried out against six bacterial species viz. E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. pyogenes, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus and four fungal species viz. C. albicans, T. viride, A. flavus and A. brasiliensis. The activity study revealed that many of the compounds possess moderate to good activity against the tested microorganisms. The active compounds have been further studied to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).
2 tables, 40 ref
ROHANE S H, CHAUHAN A J
042088 ROHANE S H, CHAUHAN A J (Kadi Sarva Vishwavidyalaya, Gandhinagar - 382 015, Gujarat, Email: email@example.com) : Antimycobacterial potential of novel hydrazone derivatives. Indian J Chem Sec B 2020, 59B(05), 700-9.
Molecular docking of 1 to 51 compounds has been performed in Small-Molecule Drug Discovery Suite of Schrödinger. Fifty one compounds have been targeted on 2NSD and 2X22 involved in tuberculosis activity. Aryloxy moiety on refluxing with chloroethyl acetate in the presence of potassium carbonate and acetone has yielded ethyl aryloxy acetate (A), which have been reacted with hydrazine hydrate to produce aryloxyacetyl hydrazine (B), which on treatment with aromatic aldehydes or ketones yield hydrazones (C). The novel series of compounds have been elucidated on the basis of spectral studies and screened for antimycobacterial activity. The compounds are significantly sensitive at concentration 50 and 100 μg/mL. Compound 11 shows sensitivity at 25 μg/mL. The antibacterial activity is strongly connected with the position of the substituent on aromatic aldehyde or ketones in relation to the hydrazide skeleton.
2 illus, 5 tables, 15 ref
GHARIA B, SUHAGIA B N, UPADHYAY J, CHAMPANERIA R, LODHA S, SHAH S A
042087 GHARIA B, SUHAGIA B N, UPADHYAY J, CHAMPANERIA R, LODHA S, SHAH S A (Pharmaceutical Chemistry Dep, UkaTarsadia Univ, Bardoli 394 350, Gujarat, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Design, synthesis, computational and biological evaluation of novel hydroxamic and carboxylic acid derivatives as histone decaetylase inhibitors. Indian J Chem Sec B 2020, 59B(05), 690-9.
One of the recent targets is histone deacetylase (HDAC) which provide a very promising new approach for anticancer drugs, which may combine clinical efficacy with relatively mild toxicological side effects. Modification of histone acetylation level, promoted by histone acetylase (HAT) and HDAC enzyme, has been recognize to play an important role in epigenetic modulation of gene expression, so HDAC inhibitors are considered a new class of anticancer agents. A new series of hydroxamic and carboxylic acid analogues based on the 1,3,4-thiadiazole scaffold has been designed and synthesized with the aim of exploring its potential as new antitumor agents. Biological results have revealed that the structural modifications proposed significantly affected inhibitory potency as well as selectivity for HDAC inhibitors. Most target compounds are significantly more active, specifically 5a, 5b, 5e with IC50 values in the low micromolar or, the most active compounds in the series. Selected compounds have been tested on the viability of MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer cell) and K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia cell), A549 (human lung cancer), PC3 (Prostate cancer cell lines) using MTT assay. Docking simulations suggested that the most active compounds can recognize the binding site (PDB Code 1w22 reference compound) using a similar interactions network. These results have allowed us to rationalize the observed structure–activity relationships.
4 illus, 3 tables, 11 ref
TANDEL H T, PATEL S K
042083 TANDEL H T, PATEL S K (Chemistry Dep, Veer Narmad South Gujarat Univ, Surat - 395 007, Gujarat, Email: email@example.com) : Efficient procedure with new fused pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives as potent antimicrobial agents. Indian J Chem Sec B 2020, 59B(04), 502-8.
A four-step preparation of compounds containing a pyrimidine moiety is presented. This synthesis involves especially a Vilsmeier–Haack reaction and the synthesized compounds screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, as well as for antifungal activities. Structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their FTIR, 1H NMR, mass spectral and elemental analysis data. Some of the newly synthesized compounds show excellent antimicrobial activity and appear to be the most proficient members of the series.
1 table, 20 ref
PRIYADARSHINI S, BHOL R, SULAVA S, JENA S
045500 PRIYADARSHINI S, BHOL R, SULAVA S, JENA S (Biotechnology Dep, Rama Devi Women’s Univ, Bhubaneswar- 751 022, Odisha) : Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using mangifera indica and aegle marmelos leaf extract (optimization of the process and anti-microbial activity against bacterial pathogens causing urinary tract infections). J Cell Tissue Res 2020, 20(1), 6889-96.
In the current study, green synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles was completed by using methanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica L. as well as Aegle marmelos L. The antimicrobial activity was screened against urinary tract infections (UTI) causing bacteria, viz. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus using disc diffusion method. Silver nanoparticles derived from Mangifera indica leaf extract inhibited E. coli by 45 ± 1.17 mm, K. pneumoniae by 44 ± 0.05 mm and S. aureus by 39 ± 0.81 mm at concentrations 2 mg/ml. Similarly, silver nanoparticles derived from Aegle marmelosleaf extract inhibited E. coli by 37 ± 0.65, K. pneumoniae by 29 ± 0.47 mm at concentrations 1 mg/ml and S. aureus by 25 ± 0.11 mm at concentrations (2 mg/ml). The higher concentration (2 mg/ml) of Mangifera indica and lower concentration (1 mg/ml) of Aegle marmelos leaf methanolic extract was observed to be effective against human pathogens that are causative agents of urinary tract infections. Further, same concentration (5mg/mL) of extract revealed an excellent anti-oxidative activity (Mangifera indica : 86.34 ± 0.56; Aegle marmelos: 89.78 ± 0.22) by DPPH method .
5 illus, 33 ref
PRASOONA G, KISHORE B, BRAHMESHWARI G
042076 PRASOONA G, KISHORE B, BRAHMESHWARI G (Chemistry Dep, Kakatiya Univ, Warangal - 506 009, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Synthesis of novel benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimido- [4,5-d]pyrimidine derivatives as potent antimicrobial agents. Indian J Chem Sec B 2020, 59B(04), 445-53.
Synthesis of novel benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimido[4,5-d] pyrimidines 5/6 has been achieved by reaction of 2-amino-4-aryl-4,10-dihydrobenzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-carbonitriles 4 with formaldehyde/urea. The key intermediate 4, is obtained by reaction of 2-aminobenzaldehyde 1 with aromatic aldehyde and malononitrile by a three-component one-pot process. The newly synthesized title compounds 5/6 have been evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Compounds 5 and 6 exhibit potent antimicrobial activity compared to that of standard drugs.
4 tables, 29 ref
SHARMA R, KAUSHIK N K
042068 SHARMA R, KAUSHIK N K (Biotechnology Dep, G.L.A. Univ, Mathura - 281 406, Uttar Pradesh, Email: email@example.com) : Synthesis, characterization and applications of Organomecury(II) pyrrolidine-N-thiohydrazide complexes. Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(12), 1778-84.
The complexes of organomercury(II) with pyrrolidine-N-thiohydrazide of the type RHg(L)Cl where[R=C6H5 (phenyl), p-ClC6H4 (p-chlorophenyl), p-BrC6H4 (p-bromophenyl), o-, p-HOC6H4, (o-,p-hydroxyphenyl), L = pyrrolidine-N-thiohydrazide, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR,1H-NMR and electronic spectral analysis. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analytical curves are used to calculate thermodynamic parameters and variations in these parameters have been correlated with complex structural parameters. All complexes were tested in vitro for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis and against two pathogenic fungal strains, namely, Aspergillus niger and Cerveleria.
2 illus, 7 tables, 22 ref
SRIDEVI N, MADHESWARI D
042067 SRIDEVI N, MADHESWARI D (Government Arts Coll for Women, Salem, Tamil Nadu - 636 008, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Theoretical and experimental studies of novel histidine derived Schiff base metal complexes, active towards biomedical and MCF 7 cell lines. Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(12), 1768-77.
Novel tri-dentate ligand-metal complexes [Mn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) (1-5)] have been synthesized using L-histidine amino acid derived Schiff base ligand and characterized using analytical and spectral methods like UV-visible, FT-IR and ESI-MS techniques. The antioxidant studies of the Schiff base ligand and 1-5 complexes reveal that complexes exhibit significant free radical scavenging activity against the free radical DPPH. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the 1-5 complexes evaluated against the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7), reveal that complex 3 exhibits higher cytotoxicity than any other synthesized metal complexes. The docking studies have been carried out using BSA protein and DNA biomolecules with synthesized metal complexes. Antimicrobial studies has demonstrated that Cu(II) complexes possess higher activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as Fungi.
5 illus, 47 ref
SUDHA A, ALI S J A
042064 SUDHA A, ALI S J A (Chemistry Dep, Affiliated to Univ of Madras, Chennai - 600 014, Email: email@example.com) : Investigation of molecular docking, biological and DFT studies of Schiff base transition metal complexes. Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(11), 1666-75.
The Schiff base ligand obtained from the reaction of 2-amino-3-hydroxypyridine, 2,4,6-trihydroxy benzaldehyde is described. Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Zn(II)complexes have been analyzed by various spectroscopic techniques like FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectrometry and NMR. Based on spectral data octahedral geometry has been assigned to the complexes. In the present study the prepared Schiff base ligand and all the metal complexes have been synthesized and studied for their in vitro anti diabetic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Geometry optimization and the chemical stability and reactivity of complexes clearly understood with help of frontier molecular orbital’s (HOMO-LUMO) using B3LYP/LACVP++ basis sets based on density functional theory. Furthermore, Molecular docking study of the Schiff base ligand and their metal (II) complexes showed good binding score with human pancreatic α-amylase (PDB: 1HNY).
5 illus, 7 tables, 31 ref
JOARDAR S, RAY S
042059 JOARDAR S, RAY S (Biotechnology Dep, Neotia Institute of Technology, Amira - 743 368, West Bengal, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : 3,6-Di(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4,5-s-tetrazine capped-gold nanoparticles as an efficient antibacterialagent against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(11), 1627-31.
In current work, we present 3,6-di(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4,5-s-tetrazine (pytz) capped gold nanoparticles (TzAuNPs) as an potent antibacterial agent against Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial properties of TzAuNPs have been studied using Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 11774) by the plate count method and TzAuNPs is found to be highly effective against the strain. Furthermore, TzAuNPs also show significantly better antimicrobial activity against the bacterial strain when compared to pytz. The effect of TzAuNPs on the bacterial cell wall is also investigated by TEM analysis. This new antimicrobial material could be promising in future for the treatment infectious diseases caused by Gram-positive bacteria.
6 illus, 27 ref
SHARMA S, SACHAR R, BAJJU G D, SHARMA V
042058 SHARMA S, SACHAR R, BAJJU G D, SHARMA V (Chemistry Dep, Jammu Univ, Jammu - 180 006, Jammu and Kashmir, Email: email@example.com) : Nickel(II) complexes of m-ethylphenylxanthate with nitrogen donors and their biological screening. Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(11), 1618-26.
A series of five adducts of m-ethylphenylxanthate of nickel(II) [(m-C2H5C6H4OCS2)2Ni] with nitrogen donors have been synthesized in 1:2 molar ratio by the reaction of aqueous solution of NiCl2.6H2O with aqueous solution of sodium salt of m-ethylphenylxanthate. These metal complexes are reacted with nitrogen donors to give donor stabilized complex, [(m-C2H5C6H4OCS2)2(L)2Ni] where, L= 2-, 3-, 4-ethylpyridine and 2-, 3-chloropyridine. The adducts have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic, mass spectral studies, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, biological studies. The spectral studies have revealed the octahedral coordination of ligands around Ni(II) metal ion. The adducts are found to be paramagnetic and non-ionic in nature. Mass studies show the monomeric nature of the adducts. The complexes have depicted potential antifungal activity against Bipolaris maydis and Rhizoctonia solani. Some of the synthesized Ni(II) xanthate complexes display in vitro cytotoxic efficacy against human cancer cell lines.
6 illus, 8 tables, 37 ref
ZHU Z W, YANG M, ZHANG J P
042044 ZHU Z W, YANG M, ZHANG J P (Training Dep, Tongling Vocational and Technical Coll, Anhui Province, China, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Synthesis of ester derivatives of Rhein and their in vitro antitumor activities on cervical cancer cells (Hela). Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(09), 1359-63.
Taking Rhein as the lead compound, ten esters of rhein were synthesized by esterification. For synthesis of smaller steric hindrance alcohols, SOCl2 was used as a catalyst to synthesize methyl, ethyl and butyl esters. For lager steric hindrance alcohols, dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC) was used as dehydrating agent, and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) was used as the catalyst to synthesize isopropyl, isobutyl, tertbutyl, isoamyl, benzyl, 2-phenyl ethyl, 2-chloroethyl esters. Structural characterization of the target compounds were done using melting point, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS. Five out of the 10 compounds were new. All the compounds were evaluated for antitumor activities in vitro against Hela human cervical carcinoma cell lines. Study found that all the ten compounds showed differences in their growth inhibitory effect on tumor cells. Compound with benzyl groups improved the antitumor activity. Results showed that compound 3b exhibited maximum activity against Hela cell lines at 100 μg mL–1 (IC50 value) with an inhibition rate of 70%, while the derivative 3i showed the lowest inhibitory activity (IC50 <64.3 μg mL–1).
1 illus, 2 tables, 19 ref
CHEN C, LU Y
042043 CHEN C, LU Y (Endocrinology Dep, Suzhou Ninth People’s Hospital, Jiang su Suzhou 215200, China, Email: email@example.com) : Tetrandrine derivatives IVa-IVd: Structural analysis and their inhibition rate against protein tyrosine kinase, and HL60 & A549 cancer cell lines. Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(09), 1354-8.
Four tetrandrine (TET) derivatives (IVa-IVd) have been synthesized by Suzuki reaction of boronic acid derivatives and 5-bromo-tetrandrine obtained by bromination using tetrandrine as the starting material. The structures are analyzed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESI-MS. The inhibition activities of IVa-IVd against HL60 and A549 cancer cell lines have been investigated by CCK-8 assay. The compounds having significant (P <0.040) inhibition activities are secondarily screened by MTT assay. The inhibitory activities of IVa-IVd against protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are tested by ELISA. The results show that IVa, IVb and IVc exhibit significant inhibition activities against the two cancer cell lines. The IVb and IVc show highly significant (P <0.001) inhibition activities against fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1).
2 illus, 8 ref
SEETHALAKSHMI K, KAVIYA M, GANEASAN M S, VENKATACHALAPATHY B, VEERABADRAN K M, SRIDHAR T M
042035 SEETHALAKSHMI K, KAVIYA M, GANEASAN M S, VENKATACHALAPATHY B, VEERABADRAN K M, SRIDHAR T M (Analytical Chemistry Dep, Madras Univ, Chennai - 600 025, Tamil Nadu, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Fabrication of polycaprolactone/β-tricalciumphosphate based nano scaffolds using electrospinning method for biomedical applications. Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(09), 1292-7.
In this study, we have focused on preparation, fabrication and characterization of polycaprolactone and beta tricalcium phosphate (PCL/β-TCP) composite scaffolds that are used for bone tissue engineering applications. The electrospun composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The developed scaffolds are effectively simulated the morphology, mechanical property and bioactivity for load-bearing tissue engineering applications. The bioactivity of the scaffolds has been evaluated with in vitro cell adhesion and growth studies. The results confirm the nontoxic behaviour of the composite biomaterials and developed scaffolds with MG-63 osteoblast-like cell line. The synthesized scaffolds have shown promising bioactivity with the growth as well as proliferation of new bone cells with considerable osteoconductive properties. The nanoscaffolds possess better physical properties and support high cell adhesion suggesting their application in bone tissue engineering field.
9 illus, 26 ref
NAGARAJAN A, SETHURAMAN V, BALASUBRAMANI V, SRIDHAR T M, SASIKUMAR R, VIMALA G
042032 NAGARAJAN A, SETHURAMAN V, BALASUBRAMANI V, SRIDHAR T M, SASIKUMAR R, VIMALA G (Chellammal Women’s Coll, Chennai - 600 032, Tamil Nadu, Email: email@example.com) : Solanum melongena leaf extract based zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesis using green chemistry concepts. Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(09), 1273-7.
Nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO NPs) have been synthesised from naturally available Eggplant, Solanum melongena leaf extract. The methodology has been optimized to obtain ZnO NPs which as are characterized using UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and FT-Infra red (FTIR) tools to confirm their nano dimensions and chemical properties. The SPR band is obtained at 389 nm in UV-visible absorption spectrum confirmes the formation of ZnO NPs while the presence of -OH, -C-O, -CH2 and –COO groups at vibrational frequencies of 3500, 105, 3000 and 1640 cm-1, respectively are observed from FTIR. Further, the SEM images show regular flakes like structure, and the average distribution of the nanoparticle is found to be around 100 nm. The newly synthesised ZnO NPs using leaf extract of Solanum melongena show considerable activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The ZnO NPs is proved to be more potent against Staphylococcus aureus than E. coli.
5 illus, 22 ref
SAINI H, ABBOT V, BISHT G S, SHARMA P
042025 SAINI H, ABBOT V, BISHT G S, SHARMA P (Biotechnology & Bioinformatics Dep, Jaypee Univ of Information Technology, Solan, Himachal Pradesh - 173 234, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Study of the physico-chemical properties of vancomycin hydrochloride for determining its potential applications in formulation development. Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(08), 1113-9.
The study of physico-chemical properties of vancomycin hydrochloride is an important parameter in the pre-formulation analysis of a drug. Pre-formulation study provides important information for formulation design or support the need for molecular modification. The main objective of pre-formulation is to develop a stable and an effective drug, with a safe dosage. Therefore, properties like specific conductivity, density, viscosity, velocity of sound and specific gravity are determined which further helps in determination of critical micelle concentration (CMC). Other thermodynamic parameters are calculated from CMC like change in entropy, enthalpy and Gibb’s free energy which indicated that formation of micelles is favourable and exothermic in nature. Along with this, thermo-acoustic parameters such as apparent molar volume and apparent molar compressibility have also been determined. These parameters reveal that electrostatic interactions are favourable at lower concentrations of vancomycin hydrochloride whereas hydrophobic interactions are dominant at higher concentrations. All these studies have proven useful in determining the types of interactions occurring in the system. Moreover, a stable concentration of vancomycin hydrochloride can also be determined which may aid in the topical formulation of this drug.
4 illus, 7 tables, 27 ref
JAIN P, SINGH V, TRIPATHI V
042001 JAIN P, SINGH V, TRIPATHI V (Chemistry & Biochemistry Dep, Sharda Univ, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, Email: email@example.com) : Microwave assisted template synthesis of metal based EGFR, TRK inhibitors, molecular docking and in vitro biological studies. Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(06), 752-9.
Metal based biologically active compounds have been synthesized by microwave assisted template condensation method and characterized by spectro-analytical techniques like molar conductance, UV-visible, infrared and mass spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The metal is arranged in octahedral geometry surrounded by tetradentate ligand framework. The binding affinity of all the metal complexes has been evaluated theoretically by molecular docking studies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and tyrosine kinase (TRK) receptor molecules which are further verified by in vitro anticancer activity. Complex [Cr(C16H11N4O2)(NO3)2]NO3 have showed potent in vitro cytotoxicity (IC50 value 39.5μM) against SCC4 cancer cell line. Antioxidant study has also performed by DPPH assay and significant results are found.[Fe(C16H11N4O2)(OAc)2]OAc and [Cr(C16H11N4O2) (OAc)2]OAc are most effective antioxidants with 78.7 % and 76.8 % free radical scavenging activity, respectively.
5 illus, 8 tables, 34 ref
NANDANWAR S K, BORKAR S B, WIJAYA B N, BAYARRA E, PIAD L L A , JIN Q, TIARA C S, KIM H J, TARTE N H
041991 NANDANWAR S K, BORKAR S B, WIJAYA B N, BAYARRA E, PIAD L L A , JIN Q, TIARA C S, KIM H J, TARTE N H (Chemistry and Biology Dep, KSA of KAIST, Busan, Republic of Korea, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Synthesis and characterization of novel chelation-free Zn(II)-azole complexes: Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and DNA binding activity. Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(05), 589-97.
Here, we synthesized novel chelation-free Zn(II)-complexes (1-3) [ZnCl2L2] of monodentate ligands with L = 2-isopropylimidazole (L1), 2-methylbenzimidazole (L2), and 2-methylbenzoxazole (L3) and evaluated their antibacterial, antioxidant and DNA binding activities. The chelation-free properties of these coordination complexes were confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, single X-ray crystallography and elemental analysis. Complexes 1-3 exhibited substantial antibacterial activity against all antibiotic susceptible bacteria within a concentration range of 100-200 µg/ml while free ligands L1 and L2 exhibited weak antibacterial activity considerably concentration above 200 µg/ml. Also, both complexes 2 and 3 were twice more active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) than complex 1. Furthermore, we found that complexes 1-3 showed DNA binding activity with E. coli plasmid DNA and calf thymus DNA, which may be a plausible mechanism for their antibacterial activity. We also investigated the antioxidant activity of complexes 1-3 and found that complex 2 exhibited potential antioxidant activity compared to complexes 1 and 3. All these results suggest that the chelation-free Zn(II)-complexes can be the future candidates for more advance biological studies.
6 illus, 4 tables, 41 ref
YAPAR G, SENEL B, DEMIR N, YILDIZ M
041980 YAPAR G, SENEL B, DEMIR N, YILDIZ M (Chemistry Dep, Istanbul Technical Univ, Istanbul 34469, Turkey, Email: email@example.com) : Synthesis and characterization of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid-functionalized graphene quantum dots: biological activity, antioxidant activity and cell viability. Indian J Chem Sec A 2020, 59A(03), 317-23.
A facile, environmentally friendly one-step reaction for the preparation of luminescent N-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) involving a hydrothermal reaction between citric acid and 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid has been designed. Graphene quantum dots have been characterized by UV-visible absorption, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. Furthermore, the biological activity of the GQDs has been studied. UV-visible spectroscopy studies of the interactions between the GQDs and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) showed that the compound interacts with CT-DNA via intercalative binding. DNA cleavage study showed that the GQDs cleaved DNA oxidatively. In addition, antioxidant activity of N-doped GQDs was measured using the DPPH method. As the concentration of the compound increased, the antioxidant activity also has increased. According to cell viability analyses results, the N-doped GQDs showed cell viability (70 %) when the concentration reaches 228 μg/mL for A549, 200 μg/mL for MDA-MB-231 and 140 μg/mL for NIH-3T3 cell lines with 24 h incubation.
9 illus, 1 table, 43 ref
SANTHOSHKUMAR M , BANU S J, THIRUMALAI T , SUPRAJA N, PRIYANKA C , MENAKAPRIYA B , DAVID E
043841 SANTHOSHKUMAR M , BANU S J, THIRUMALAI T , SUPRAJA N, PRIYANKA C , MENAKAPRIYA B , DAVID E (Biotechnology Dep, Thiruvalluvar Univ, Serkadu - 632 115, Tamil Nadu, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) : Biological fabrication and characterization of Silver nanoparticles using Gymnemasylvestre and its medical application. Int J Green Pharm 2020, 14(4), 388-92.
The present study was aimed to green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Gymnema sylvestre, which was evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. The synthesized NPs were characterized by various analytical techniques such as ultraviolet–visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was confirmed through the UV–Vis spectrophotometer; corresponding peaks were identified at 424 nm. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized by FT-IR studies to reveal the functional group attributed to the formation of AgNPs. Morphological size of AgNPs was 20 nm detect through characterization by DLS and TEM. The green synthesized AgNPs showed vigorous antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacterial strains such as Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus, hemolytic Staphylococcus petrasii subs. pragensis Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. These biosynthesized AgNPs were then used to demonstrate antimicrobial activity against a pathogen bacterium. The antibacterial activity of AgNP was clearly from the zone of inhibition. At concentrations (20 µg/ml–50µg/ml), the AgNP showed a clear zone of inhibition.
8 illus, 18 ref